Integral Domain
In mathematics, specifically abstract algebra, an integral domain is a nonzero commutative ring in which the product of any two nonzero elements is nonzero. Integral domains are generalizations of the ring of integers and provide a natural setting for studying divisibility. In an integral domain, every nonzero element ''a'' has the cancellation property, that is, if , an equality implies . "Integral domain" is defined almost universally as above, but there is some variation. This article follows the convention that rings have a multiplicative identity, generally denoted 1, but some authors do not follow this, by not requiring integral domains to have a multiplicative identity. Noncommutative integral domains are sometimes admitted. This article, however, follows the much more usual convention of reserving the term "integral domain" for the commutative case and using "domain" for the general case including noncommutative rings. Some sources, notably Lang, use the term ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Integral
In mathematics, an integral is the continuous analog of a sum, which is used to calculate areas, volumes, and their generalizations. Integration, the process of computing an integral, is one of the two fundamental operations of calculus,Integral calculus is a very well established mathematical discipline for which there are many sources. See and , for example. the other being differentiation. Integration started as a method to solve problems in mathematics and physics, such as finding the area under a curve, or determining displacement from velocity. Today integration is used in a wide variety of scientific fields. The integrals enumerated here are those termed definite integrals, which can be interpreted as the signed area of the region in the plane that is bounded by the graph of a given function between two points in the real line. Conventionally, areas above the horizontal axis of the plane are positive while areas below are negative. Integrals also refer to the concept ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Prime Ideal
In algebra, a prime ideal is a subset of a ring that shares many important properties of a prime number in the ring of integers. The prime ideals for the integers are the sets that contain all the multiples of a given prime number, together with the zero ideal. Primitive ideals are prime, and prime ideals are both primary and semiprime. Prime ideals for commutative rings An ideal of a commutative ring is prime if it has the following two properties: * If and are two elements of such that their product is an element of , then is in or is in , * is not the whole ring . This generalizes the following property of prime numbers, known as Euclid's lemma: if is a prime number and if divides a product of two integers, then divides or divides . We can therefore say :A positive integer is a prime number if and only if n\Z is a prime ideal in \Z. Examples * A simple example: In the ring R=\Z, the subset of even numbers is a prime ideal. * Given an integral do ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Polynomial
In mathematics, a polynomial is an expression consisting of indeterminates (also called variables) and coefficients, that involves only the operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and positiveinteger powers of variables. An example of a polynomial of a single indeterminate is . An example with three indeterminates is . Polynomials appear in many areas of mathematics and science. For example, they are used to form polynomial equations, which encode a wide range of problems, from elementary word problems to complicated scientific problems; they are used to define polynomial functions, which appear in settings ranging from basic chemistry and physics to economics and social science; they are used in calculus and numerical analysis to approximate other functions. In advanced mathematics, polynomials are used to construct polynomial rings and algebraic varieties, which are central concepts in algebra and algebraic geometry. Etymology The word ''polynomial'' joins ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Domain (ring Theory)
In algebra, a domain is a nonzero ring in which implies or .Lam (2001), p. 3 (Sometimes such a ring is said to "have the zeroproduct property".) Equivalently, a domain is a ring in which 0 is the only left zero divisor (or equivalently, the only right zero divisor). A commutative domain is called an integral domain. Mathematical literature contains multiple variants of the definition of "domain".Some authors also consider the zero ring to be a domain: see Polcino M. & Sehgal (2002), p. 65. Some authors apply the term "domain" also to rngs with the zeroproduct property; such authors consider ''n''Z to be a domain for each positive integer ''n'': see Lanski (2005), p. 343. But integral domains are always required to be nonzero and to have a 1. Examples and nonexamples * The ring Z/6Z is not a domain, because the images of 2 and 3 in this ring are nonzero elements with product 0. More generally, for a positive integer ''n'', the ring Z/''n''Z is a domain if and only ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Wedderburn's Little Theorem
In mathematics, Wedderburn's little theorem states that every finite domain is a field. In other words, for finite rings, there is no distinction between domains, division rings and fields. The Artin–Zorn theorem generalizes the theorem to alternative rings: every finite alternative division ring is a field. History The original proof was given by Joseph Wedderburn in 1905,Lam (2001), p. 204/ref> who went on to prove it two other ways. Another proof was given by Leonard Eugene Dickson shortly after Wedderburn's original proof, and Dickson acknowledged Wedderburn's priority. However, as noted in , Wedderburn's first proof was incorrect – it had a gap – and his subsequent proofs appeared only after he had read Dickson's correct proof. On this basis, Parshall argues that Dickson should be credited with the first correct proof. A simplified version of the proof was later given by Ernst Witt. Witt's proof is sketched below. Alternatively, the theorem is a consequence of t ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Finite Field
In mathematics, a finite field or Galois field (sonamed in honor of Évariste Galois) is a field that contains a finite number of elements. As with any field, a finite field is a set on which the operations of multiplication, addition, subtraction and division are defined and satisfy certain basic rules. The most common examples of finite fields are given by the integers mod when is a prime number. The ''order'' of a finite field is its number of elements, which is either a prime number or a prime power. For every prime number and every positive integer there are fields of order p^k, all of which are isomorphic. Finite fields are fundamental in a number of areas of mathematics and computer science, including number theory, algebraic geometry, Galois theory, finite geometry, cryptography and coding theory. Properties A finite field is a finite set which is a field; this means that multiplication, addition, subtraction and division (excluding division by zero ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Artinian Ring
In mathematics, specifically abstract algebra, an Artinian ring (sometimes Artin ring) is a ring that satisfies the descending chain condition on (onesided) ideals; that is, there is no infinite descending sequence of ideals. Artinian rings are named after Emil Artin, who first discovered that the descending chain condition for ideals simultaneously generalizes finite rings and rings that are finitedimensional vector spaces over fields. The definition of Artinian rings may be restated by interchanging the descending chain condition with an equivalent notion: the minimum condition. Precisely, a ring is left Artinian if it satisfies the descending chain condition on left ideals, right Artinian if it satisfies the descending chain condition on right ideals, and Artinian or twosided Artinian if it is both left and right Artinian. For commutative rings the left and right definitions coincide, but in general they are distinct from each other. The Artin–Wedderburn theorem char ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Real Number
In mathematics, a real number is a number that can be used to measure a ''continuous'' onedimensional quantity such as a distance, duration or temperature. Here, ''continuous'' means that values can have arbitrarily small variations. Every real number can be almost uniquely represented by an infinite decimal expansion. The real numbers are fundamental in calculus (and more generally in all mathematics), in particular by their role in the classical definitions of limits, continuity and derivatives. The set of real numbers is denoted or \mathbb and is sometimes called "the reals". The adjective ''real'' in this context was introduced in the 17th century by René Descartes to distinguish real numbers, associated with physical reality, from imaginary numbers (such as the square roots of ), which seemed like a theoretical contrivance unrelated to physical reality. The real numbers include the rational numbers, such as the integer and the fraction . The rest of the rea ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Field Of Fractions
In abstract algebra, the field of fractions of an integral domain is the smallest field in which it can be embedded. The construction of the field of fractions is modeled on the relationship between the integral domain of integers and the field of rational numbers. Intuitively, it consists of ratios between integral domain elements. The field of fractions of R is sometimes denoted by \operatorname(R) or \operatorname(R), and the construction is sometimes also called the fraction field, field of quotients, or quotient field of R. All four are in common usage, but are not to be confused with the quotient of a ring by an ideal, which is a quite different concept. For a commutative ring which is not an integral domain, the analogous construction is called the localization or ring of quotients. Definition Given an integral domain and letting R^* = R \setminus \, we define an equivalence relation on R \times R^* by letting (n,d) \sim (m,b) whenever nb = md. We denote the equiva ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Field (mathematics)
In mathematics, a field is a set on which addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division are defined and behave as the corresponding operations on rational and real numbers do. A field is thus a fundamental algebraic structure which is widely used in algebra, number theory, and many other areas of mathematics. The best known fields are the field of rational numbers, the field of real numbers and the field of complex numbers. Many other fields, such as fields of rational functions, algebraic function fields, algebraic number fields, and ''p''adic fields are commonly used and studied in mathematics, particularly in number theory and algebraic geometry. Most cryptographic protocols rely on finite fields, i.e., fields with finitely many elements. The relation of two fields is expressed by the notion of a field extension. Galois theory, initiated by Évariste Galois in the 1830s, is devoted to understanding the symmetries of field extensions. Among other ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Subring
In mathematics, a subring of ''R'' is a subset of a ring that is itself a ring when binary operations of addition and multiplication on ''R'' are restricted to the subset, and which shares the same multiplicative identity as ''R''. For those who define rings without requiring the existence of a multiplicative identity, a subring of ''R'' is just a subset of ''R'' that is a ring for the operations of ''R'' (this does imply it contains the additive identity of ''R''). The latter gives a strictly weaker condition, even for rings that do have a multiplicative identity, so that for instance all ideals become subrings (and they may have a multiplicative identity that differs from the one of ''R''). With definition requiring a multiplicative identity (which is used in this article), the only ideal of ''R'' that is a subring of ''R'' is ''R'' itself. Definition A subring of a ring is a subset ''S'' of ''R'' that preserves the structure of the ring, i.e. a ring with . Equivalently, ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Isomorphic
In mathematics, an isomorphism is a structurepreserving mapping between two structures of the same type that can be reversed by an inverse mapping. Two mathematical structures are isomorphic if an isomorphism exists between them. The word isomorphism is derived from the Ancient Greek: ἴσος ''isos'' "equal", and μορφή ''morphe'' "form" or "shape". The interest in isomorphisms lies in the fact that two isomorphic objects have the same properties (excluding further information such as additional structure or names of objects). Thus isomorphic structures cannot be distinguished from the point of view of structure only, and may be identified. In mathematical jargon, one says that two objects are . An automorphism is an isomorphism from a structure to itself. An isomorphism between two structures is a canonical isomorphism (a canonical map that is an isomorphism) if there is only one isomorphism between the two structures (as it is the case for solutions of a uni ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 