INTEGRAL
In mathematics, an integral assigns numbers to functions in a way that describes displacement, area, volume, and other concepts that arise by combining infinitesimal data. The process of finding integrals is called integration. Along with differentiation, integration is a fundamental, essential operation of calculus,Integral calculus is a very well established mathematical discipline for which there are many sources. See and , for example. and serves as a tool to solve problems in mathematics and physics involving the area of an arbitrary shape, the length of a curve, and the volume of a solid, among others. The integrals enumerated here are those termed definite integrals, which can be interpreted as the signed area of the region in the plane that is bounded by the graph of a given function between two points in the real line. Conventionally, areas above the horizontal axis of the plane are positive while areas below are negative. Integrals also refer to the concept ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Integral Example
In mathematics, an integral assigns numbers to Function (mathematics), functions in a way that describes Displacement (geometry), displacement, area, volume, and other concepts that arise by combining infinitesimal data. The process of finding integrals is called integration. Along with Derivative, differentiation, integration is a fundamental, essential operation of calculus,Integral calculus is a very well established mathematical discipline for which there are many sources. See and , for example. and serves as a tool to solve problems in mathematics and physics involving the area of an arbitrary shape, the length of a curve, and the volume of a solid, among others. The integrals enumerated here are those termed definite integrals, which can be interpreted as the signed area of the region in the plane that is bounded by the Graph of a function, graph of a given function between two points in the real line. Conventionally, areas above the horizontal axis of the plane are posi ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Lebesgue Integration
In mathematics, the integral of a nonnegative function of a single variable can be regarded, in the simplest case, as the area between the graph of that function and the axis. The Lebesgue integral, named after French mathematician Henri Lebesgue, extends the integral to a larger class of functions. It also extends the domains on which these functions can be defined. Long before the 20th century, mathematicians already understood that for nonnegative functions with a smooth enough graph—such as continuous functions on closed bounded intervals—the ''area under the curve'' could be defined as the integral, and computed using approximation techniques on the region by polygons. However, as the need to consider more irregular functions arose—e.g., as a result of the limiting processes of mathematical analysis and the mathematical theory of probability—it became clear that more careful approximation techniques were needed to define a suitable integral. Also, one mig ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Line Integral
In mathematics, a line integral is an integral where the function to be integrated is evaluated along a curve. The terms ''path integral'', ''curve integral'', and ''curvilinear integral'' are also used; ''contour integral'' is used as well, although that is typically reserved for line integrals in the complex plane. The function to be integrated may be a scalar field or a vector field. The value of the line integral is the sum of values of the field at all points on the curve, weighted by some scalar function on the curve (commonly arc length or, for a vector field, the scalar product of the vector field with a differential vector in the curve). This weighting distinguishes the line integral from simpler integrals defined on intervals. Many simple formulae in physics, such as the definition of work as W=\mathbf\cdot\mathbf, have natural continuous analogues in terms of line integrals, in this case \textstyle W = \int_L \mathbf(\mathbf)\cdot d\mathbf, which computes the wo ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Antiderivative
In calculus, an antiderivative, inverse derivative, primitive function, primitive integral or indefinite integral of a function is a differentiable function whose derivative is equal to the original function . This can be stated symbolically as . The process of solving for antiderivatives is called antidifferentiation (or indefinite integration), and its opposite operation is called ''differentiation'', which is the process of finding a derivative. Antiderivatives are often denoted by capital Roman letters such as and . Antiderivatives are related to definite integrals through the second fundamental theorem of calculus: the definite integral of a function over a closed interval where the function is Riemann integrable is equal to the difference between the values of an antiderivative evaluated at the endpoints of the interval. In physics, antiderivatives arise in the context of rectilinear motion (e.g., in explaining the relationship between position, velocity and acce ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Fundamental Theorem Of Calculus
The fundamental theorem of calculus is a theorem that links the concept of differentiating a function (calculating its slopes, or rate of change at each time) with the concept of integrating a function (calculating the area under its graph, or the cumulative effect of small contributions). The two operations are inverses of each other apart from a constant value which depends on where one starts to compute area. The first part of the theorem, the first fundamental theorem of calculus, states that for a function , an antiderivative or indefinite integral may be obtained as the integral of over an interval with a variable upper bound. This implies the existence of antiderivatives for continuous functions. Conversely, the second part of the theorem, the second fundamental theorem of calculus, states that the integral of a function over a fixed interval is equal to the change of any antiderivative between the ends of the interval. This greatly simplifies the calculation of ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Surface Integral
In mathematics, particularly multivariable calculus, a surface integral is a generalization of multiple integrals to integration over surfaces. It can be thought of as the double integral analogue of the line integral. Given a surface, one may integrate a scalar field (that is, a function of position which returns a scalar as a value) over the surface, or a vector field (that is, a function which returns a vector as value). If a region R is not flat, then it is called a ''surface'' as shown in the illustration. Surface integrals have applications in physics, particularly with the theories of classical electromagnetism. Surface integrals of scalar fields Assume that ''f'' is a scalar, vector, or tensor field defined on a surface ''S''. To find an explicit formula for the surface integral of ''f'' over ''S'', we need to parameterize ''S'' by defining a system of curvilinear coordinates on ''S'', like the latitude and longitude on a sphere. Let such a parameter ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Henri Lebesgue
Henri Léon Lebesgue (; June 28, 1875 – July 26, 1941) was a French mathematician known for his theory of integration, which was a generalization of the 17thcentury concept of integration—summing the area between an axis and the curve of a function defined for that axis. His theory was published originally in his dissertation ''Intégrale, longueur, aire'' ("Integral, length, area") at the University of Nancy during 1902. Personal life Henri Lebesgue was born on 28 June 1875 in Beauvais, Oise. Lebesgue's father was a typesetter and his mother was a school teacher. His parents assembled at home a library that the young Henri was able to use. His father died of tuberculosis when Lebesgue was still very young and his mother had to support him by herself. As he showed a remarkable talent for mathematics in primary school, one of his instructors arranged for community support to continue his education at the Collège de Beauvais and then at Lycée SaintLouis and Lycée ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Calculus
Calculus, originally called infinitesimal calculus or "the calculus of infinitesimals", is the mathematical study of continuous change, in the same way that geometry is the study of shape, and algebra is the study of generalizations of arithmetic operations. It has two major branches, differential calculus and integral calculus; the former concerns instantaneous rates of change, and the slopes of curves, while the latter concerns accumulation of quantities, and areas under or between curves. These two branches are related to each other by the fundamental theorem of calculus, and they make use of the fundamental notions of convergence of infinite sequences and infinite series to a welldefined limit. Infinitesimal calculus was developed independently in the late 17th century by Isaac Newton and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. Later work, including codifying the idea of limits, put these developments on a more solid conceptual footing. Today, calculus has widespread uses in scienc ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Threedimensional Space
Threedimensional space (also: 3D space, 3space or, rarely, tridimensional space) is a geometric setting in which three values (called ''parameters'') are required to determine the position of an element (i.e., point). This is the informal meaning of the term dimension. In mathematics, a tuple of numbers can be understood as the Cartesian coordinates of a location in a dimensional Euclidean space. The set of these tuples is commonly denoted \R^n, and can be identified to the dimensional Euclidean space. When , this space is called threedimensional Euclidean space (or simply Euclidean space when the context is clear). It serves as a model of the physical universe (when relativity theory is not considered), in which all known matter exists. While this space remains the most compelling and useful way to model the world as it is experienced, it is only one example of a large variety of spaces in three dimensions called 3manifolds. In this classical example, when the ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Area Of A Circle
In geometry, the area enclosed by a circle of radius is . Here the Greek letter represents the constant ratio of the circumference of any circle to its diameter, approximately equal to 3.14159. One method of deriving this formula, which originated with Archimedes, involves viewing the circle as the limit of a sequence of regular polygons. The area of a regular polygon is half its perimeter multiplied by the distance from its center to its sides, and the corresponding formula–that the area is half the perimeter times the radius–namely, , holds in the limit for a circle. Although often referred to as the ''area of a circle'' in informal contexts, strictly speaking the term '' disk'' refers to the interior region of the circle, while ''circle'' is reserved for the boundary only, which is a curve and covers no area itself. Therefore, the ''area of a disk'' is the more precise phrase for the area enclosed by a circle. History Modern mathematics can obtain the area ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Area
Area is the quantity that expresses the extent of a region on the plane or on a curved surface. The area of a plane region or ''plane area'' refers to the area of a shape or planar lamina, while '' surface area'' refers to the area of an open surface or the boundary of a threedimensional object. Area can be understood as the amount of material with a given thickness that would be necessary to fashion a model of the shape, or the amount of paint necessary to cover the surface with a single coat. It is the twodimensional analogue of the length of a curve (a onedimensional concept) or the volume of a solid (a threedimensional concept). The area of a shape can be measured by comparing the shape to squares of a fixed size. In the International System of Units (SI), the standard unit of area is the square metre (written as m2), which is the area of a square whose sides are one metre long. A shape with an area of three square metres would have the same area as three such s ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz
Gottfried Wilhelm (von) Leibniz . ( – 14 November 1716) was a German polymath active as a mathematician, philosopher, scientist and diplomat. He is one of the most prominent figures in both the history of philosophy and the history of mathematics. He wrote works on philosophy, theology, ethics, politics, law, history and philology. Leibniz also made major contributions to physics and technology, and anticipated notions that surfaced much later in probability theory, biology, medicine, geology, psychology, linguistics and computer science. In addition, he contributed to the field of library science: while serving as overseer of the Wolfenbüttel library in Germany, he devised a cataloging system that would have served as a guide for many of Europe's largest libraries. Leibniz's contributions to this vast array of subjects were scattered in various learned journals, in tens of thousands of letters and in unpublished manuscripts. He wrote in several languages, primarily in L ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 