Integers
An integer is the number zero (), a positive natural number (, , , etc.) or a negative integer with a minus sign ( −1, −2, −3, etc.). The negative numbers are the additive inverses of the corresponding positive numbers. In the language of mathematics, the set of integers is often denoted by the boldface or blackboard bold \mathbb. The set of natural numbers \mathbb is a subset of \mathbb, which in turn is a subset of the set of all rational numbers \mathbb, itself a subset of the real numbers \mathbb. Like the natural numbers, \mathbb is countably infinite. An integer may be regarded as a real number that can be written without a fractional component. For example, 21, 4, 0, and −2048 are integers, while 9.75, , and are not. The integers form the smallest group and the smallest ring containing the natural numbers. In algebraic number theory, the integers are sometimes qualified as rational integers to distinguish them from the more general algebraic integer ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Integer
An integer is the number zero (), a positive natural number (, , , etc.) or a negative integer with a minus sign ( −1, −2, −3, etc.). The negative numbers are the additive inverses of the corresponding positive numbers. In the language of mathematics, the set of integers is often denoted by the boldface or blackboard bold \mathbb. The set of natural numbers \mathbb is a subset of \mathbb, which in turn is a subset of the set of all rational numbers \mathbb, itself a subset of the real numbers \mathbb. Like the natural numbers, \mathbb is countably infinite. An integer may be regarded as a real number that can be written without a fractional component. For example, 21, 4, 0, and −2048 are integers, while 9.75, , and are not. The integers form the smallest group and the smallest ring containing the natural numbers. In algebraic number theory, the integers are sometimes qualified as rational integers to distinguish them from the more general algebraic in ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Zahlen
An integer is the number zero (), a positive natural number (, , , etc.) or a negative integer with a minus sign ( −1, −2, −3, etc.). The negative numbers are the additive inverses of the corresponding positive numbers. In the language of mathematics, the set of integers is often denoted by the boldface or blackboard bold \mathbb. The set of natural numbers \mathbb is a subset of \mathbb, which in turn is a subset of the set of all rational numbers \mathbb, itself a subset of the real numbers \mathbb. Like the natural numbers, \mathbb is countably infinite. An integer may be regarded as a real number that can be written without a fractional component. For example, 21, 4, 0, and −2048 are integers, while 9.75, , and are not. The integers form the smallest group and the smallest ring containing the natural numbers. In algebraic number theory, the integers are sometimes qualified as rational integers to distinguish them from the more general algebraic integer ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Negative Number
In mathematics, a negative number represents an opposite. In the real number system, a negative number is a number that is less than zero. Negative numbers are often used to represent the magnitude of a loss or deficiency. A debt that is owed may be thought of as a negative asset. If a quantity, such as the charge on an electron, may have either of two opposite senses, then one may choose to distinguish between those senses—perhaps arbitrarily—as ''positive'' and ''negative''. Negative numbers are used to describe values on a scale that goes below zero, such as the Celsius and Fahrenheit scales for temperature. The laws of arithmetic for negative numbers ensure that the commonsense idea of an opposite is reflected in arithmetic. For example, −(−3) = 3 because the opposite of an opposite is the original value. Negative numbers are usually written with a minus sign in front. For example, −3 represents a negative quantity with a magnitude of three, and is pronounced "min ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Éléments De Mathématique
''Éléments de mathématique'' (English: ''Elements of Mathematics'') is a series of mathematics books written by the pseudonymous French collective Nicolas Bourbaki. Begun in 1939, the series has been published in several volumes, and remains in progress. The series is noted as a largescale, selfcontained, formal treatment of mathematics. The members of the Bourbaki group originally intended the work as a textbook on analysis, with the working title ''Traité d'analyse'' (''Treatise on Analysis''). While planning the structure of the work they became more ambitious, expanding its scope to cover several branches of modern mathematics. Once the plan of the work was expanded to treat other fields in depth, the title ''Éléments de mathématique'' was adopted. Topics treated in the series include set theory, abstract algebra, topology, analysis, Lie groups and Lie algebras. The unusual singular "mathématique" (mathematic) of the title is deliberate, meant to convey the ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Natural Number
In mathematics, the natural numbers are those numbers used for counting (as in "there are ''six'' coins on the table") and ordering (as in "this is the ''third'' largest city in the country"). Numbers used for counting are called '' cardinal numbers'', and numbers used for ordering are called '' ordinal numbers''. Natural numbers are sometimes used as labels, known as '' nominal numbers'', having none of the properties of numbers in a mathematical sense (e.g. sports jersey numbers). Some definitions, including the standard ISO 800002, begin the natural numbers with , corresponding to the nonnegative integers , whereas others start with , corresponding to the positive integers Texts that exclude zero from the natural numbers sometimes refer to the natural numbers together with zero as the whole numbers, while in other writings, that term is used instead for the integers (including negative integers). The natural numbers form a set. Many other number sets are built by suc ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Group (mathematics)
In mathematics, a group is a set and an operation that combines any two elements of the set to produce a third element of the set, in such a way that the operation is associative, an identity element exists and every element has an inverse. These three axioms hold for number systems and many other mathematical structures. For example, the integers together with the addition operation form a group. The concept of a group and the axioms that define it were elaborated for handling, in a unified way, essential structural properties of very different mathematical entities such as numbers, geometric shapes and polynomial roots. Because the concept of groups is ubiquitous in numerous areas both within and outside mathematics, some authors consider it as a central organizing principle of contemporary mathematics. In geometry groups arise naturally in the study of symmetries and geometric transformations: The symmetries of an object form a group, called the symmetry group of th ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Number
A number is a mathematical object used to count, measure, and label. The original examples are the natural numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, and so forth. Numbers can be represented in language with number words. More universally, individual numbers can be represented by symbols, called ''numerals''; for example, "5" is a numeral that represents the number five. As only a relatively small number of symbols can be memorized, basic numerals are commonly organized in a numeral system, which is an organized way to represent any number. The most common numeral system is the Hindu–Arabic numeral system, which allows for the representation of any number using a combination of ten fundamental numeric symbols, called digits. In addition to their use in counting and measuring, numerals are often used for labels (as with telephone numbers), for ordering (as with serial numbers), and for codes (as with ISBNs). In common usage, a ''numeral'' is not clearly distinguished from the ''numbe ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Entier
In mathematics and computer science, the floor function is the function that takes as input a real number , and gives as output the greatest integer less than or equal to , denoted or . Similarly, the ceiling function maps to the least integer greater than or equal to , denoted or . For example, , , , and . Historically, the floor of has been–and still is–called the integral part or integer part of , often denoted (as well as a variety of other notations). Some authors may define the integral part as if is nonnegative, and otherwise: for example, and . The operation of truncation generalizes this to a specified number of digits: truncation to zero significant digits is the same as the integer part. For an integer, . Notation The ''integral part'' or ''integer part'' of a number ( in the original) was first defined in 1798 by AdrienMarie Legendre in his proof of the Legendre's formula. Carl Friedrich Gauss introduced the square bracket notation in hi ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Algebraic Integer
In algebraic number theory, an algebraic integer is a complex number which is integral over the integers. That is, an algebraic integer is a complex root of some monic polynomial (a polynomial whose leading coefficient is 1) whose coefficients are integers. The set of all algebraic integers is closed under addition, subtraction and multiplication and therefore is a commutative subring of the complex numbers. The ring of integers of a number field , denoted by , is the intersection of and : it can also be characterised as the maximal order of the field . Each algebraic integer belongs to the ring of integers of some number field. A number is an algebraic integer if and only if the ring \mathbbalpha/math> is finitely generated as an abelian group, which is to say, as a \mathbbmodule. Definitions The following are equivalent definitions of an algebraic integer. Let be a number field (i.e., a finite extension of \mathbb, the field of rational numbers), in other words, K = ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Ring (mathematics)
In mathematics, rings are algebraic structures that generalize fields: multiplication need not be commutative and multiplicative inverses need not exist. In other words, a ''ring'' is a set equipped with two binary operations satisfying properties analogous to those of addition and multiplication of integers. Ring elements may be numbers such as integers or complex numbers, but they may also be nonnumerical objects such as polynomials, square matrices, functions, and power series. Formally, a ''ring'' is an abelian group whose operation is called ''addition'', with a second binary operation called ''multiplication'' that is associative, is distributive over the addition operation, and has a multiplicative identity element. (Some authors use the term " " with a missing i to refer to the more general structure that omits this last requirement; see .) Whether a ring is commutative (that is, whether the order in which two elements are multiplied might change the result ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

−1
In mathematics, −1 (also known as negative one or minus one) is the additive inverse of 1, that is, the number that when added to 1 gives the additive identity element, 0. It is the negative integer greater than negative two (−2) and less than 0. Algebraic properties Multiplying a number by −1 is equivalent to changing the sign of the number – that is, for any we have . This can be proved using the distributive law and the axiom that 1 is the multiplicative identity: :. Here we have used the fact that any number times 0 equals 0, which follows by cancellation from the equation :. In other words, :, so is the additive inverse of , i.e. , as was to be shown. Square of −1 The square of −1, i.e. −1 multiplied by −1, equals 1. As a consequence, a product of two negative numbers is positive. For an algebraic proof of this result, start with the equation :. The first equality follows from the above result, and the second follows from the defini ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Rational Number
In mathematics, a rational number is a number that can be expressed as the quotient or fraction of two integers, a numerator and a nonzero denominator . For example, is a rational number, as is every integer (e.g. ). The set of all rational numbers, also referred to as "the rationals", the field of rationals or the field of rational numbers is usually denoted by boldface , or blackboard bold \mathbb. A rational number is a real number. The real numbers that are rational are those whose decimal expansion either terminates after a finite number of digits (example: ), or eventually begins to repeat the same finite sequence of digits over and over (example: ). This statement is true not only in base 10, but also in every other integer base, such as the binary and hexadecimal ones (see ). A real number that is not rational is called irrational. Irrational numbers include , , , and . Since the set of rational numbers is countable, and the set of real numbers is ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 