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Integer Part
In mathematics and computer science, the floor function is the function that takes as input a real number , and gives as output the greatest integer less than or equal to , denoted or . Similarly, the ceiling function maps to the least integer greater than or equal to , denoted or . For example, , , , and . Historically, the floor of has been–and still is–called the integral part or integer part of , often denoted (as well as a variety of other notations). Some authors may define the integral part as if is nonnegative, and otherwise: for example, and . The operation of truncation generalizes this to a specified number of digits: truncation to zero significant digits is the same as the integer part. For an integer, . Notation The ''integral part'' or ''integer part'' of a number ( in the original) was first defined in 1798 by Adrien-Marie Legendre in his proof of the Legendre's formula. Carl Friedrich Gauss introduced the square bracket notation in hi ...
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Mathematics
Mathematics is an area of knowledge that includes the topics of numbers, formulas and related structures, shapes and the spaces in which they are contained, and quantities and their changes. These topics are represented in modern mathematics with the major subdisciplines of number theory, algebra, geometry, and analysis, respectively. There is no general consensus among mathematicians about a common definition for their academic discipline. Most mathematical activity involves the discovery of properties of abstract objects and the use of pure reason to prove them. These objects consist of either abstractions from nature orin modern mathematicsentities that are stipulated to have certain properties, called axioms. A ''proof'' consists of a succession of applications of deductive rules to already established results. These results include previously proved theorems, axioms, andin case of abstraction from naturesome basic properties that are considered true starting points of t ...
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Order Theory
Order theory is a branch of mathematics that investigates the intuitive notion of order using binary relations. It provides a formal framework for describing statements such as "this is less than that" or "this precedes that". This article introduces the field and provides basic definitions. A list of order-theoretic terms can be found in the order theory glossary. Background and motivation Orders are everywhere in mathematics and related fields like computer science. The first order often discussed in primary school is the standard order on the natural numbers e.g. "2 is less than 3", "10 is greater than 5", or "Does Tom have fewer cookies than Sally?". This intuitive concept can be extended to orders on other sets of numbers, such as the integers and the reals. The idea of being greater than or less than another number is one of the basic intuitions of number systems (compare with numeral systems) in general (although one usually is also interested in the actual differenc ...
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Fourier Series
A Fourier series () is a summation of harmonically related sinusoidal functions, also known as components or harmonics. The result of the summation is a periodic function whose functional form is determined by the choices of cycle length (or ''period''), the number of components, and their amplitudes and phase parameters. With appropriate choices, one cycle (or ''period'') of the summation can be made to approximate an arbitrary function in that interval (or the entire function if it too is periodic). The number of components is theoretically infinite, in which case the other parameters can be chosen to cause the series to converge to almost any ''well behaved'' periodic function (see Pathological and Dirichlet–Jordan test). The components of a particular function are determined by ''analysis'' techniques described in this article. Sometimes the components are known first, and the unknown function is ''synthesized'' by a Fourier series. Such is the case of a discrete- ...
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Power Series
In mathematics, a power series (in one variable) is an infinite series of the form \sum_^\infty a_n \left(x - c\right)^n = a_0 + a_1 (x - c) + a_2 (x - c)^2 + \dots where ''an'' represents the coefficient of the ''n''th term and ''c'' is a constant. Power series are useful in mathematical analysis, where they arise as Taylor series of infinitely differentiable functions. In fact, Borel's theorem implies that every power series is the Taylor series of some smooth function. In many situations, ''c'' (the ''center'' of the series) is equal to zero, for instance when considering a Maclaurin series. In such cases, the power series takes the simpler form \sum_^\infty a_n x^n = a_0 + a_1 x + a_2 x^2 + \dots. Beyond their role in mathematical analysis, power series also occur in combinatorics as generating functions (a kind of formal power series) and in electronic engineering (under the name of the Z-transform). The familiar decimal notation for real numbers can also be viewed ...
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Semi-continuity
In mathematical analysis, semicontinuity (or semi-continuity) is a property of extended real-valued functions that is weaker than continuity. An extended real-valued function f is upper (respectively, lower) semicontinuous at a point x_0 if, roughly speaking, the function values for arguments near x_0 are not much higher (respectively, lower) than f\left(x_0\right). A function is continuous if and only if it is both upper and lower semicontinuous. If we take a continuous function and increase its value at a certain point x_0 to f\left(x_0\right) + c for some c>0, then the result is upper semicontinuous; if we decrease its value to f\left(x_0\right) - c then the result is lower semicontinuous. The notion of upper and lower semicontinuous function was first introduced and studied by René Baire in his thesis in 1899. Definitions Assume throughout that X is a topological space and f:X\to\overline is a function with values in the extended real numbers \overline=\R \cup \ ...
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Continuous Function
In mathematics, a continuous function is a function such that a continuous variation (that is a change without jump) of the argument induces a continuous variation of the value of the function. This means that there are no abrupt changes in value, known as '' discontinuities''. More precisely, a function is continuous if arbitrarily small changes in its value can be assured by restricting to sufficiently small changes of its argument. A discontinuous function is a function that is . Up until the 19th century, mathematicians largely relied on intuitive notions of continuity, and considered only continuous functions. The epsilon–delta definition of a limit was introduced to formalize the definition of continuity. Continuity is one of the core concepts of calculus and mathematical analysis, where arguments and values of functions are real and complex numbers. The concept has been generalized to functions between metric spaces and between topological spaces. The latter are t ...
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Quadratic Reciprocity
In number theory, the law of quadratic reciprocity is a theorem about modular arithmetic that gives conditions for the solvability of quadratic equations modulo prime numbers. Due to its subtlety, it has many formulations, but the most standard statement is: This law, together with its supplements, allows the easy calculation of any Legendre symbol, making it possible to determine whether there is an integer solution for any quadratic equation of the form x^2\equiv a \bmod p for an odd prime p; that is, to determine the "perfect squares" modulo p. However, this is a non-constructive result: it gives no help at all for finding a ''specific'' solution; for this, other methods are required. For example, in the case p\equiv 3 \bmod 4 using Euler's criterion one can give an explicit formula for the "square roots" modulo p of a quadratic residue a, namely, :\pm a^ indeed, :\left (\pm a^ \right )^2=a^=a\cdot a^\equiv a\left(\frac\right)=a \bmod p. This formula only works if it is ...
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Coprime
In mathematics, two integers and are coprime, relatively prime or mutually prime if the only positive integer that is a divisor of both of them is 1. Consequently, any prime number that divides does not divide , and vice versa. This is equivalent to their greatest common divisor (GCD) being 1. One says also '' is prime to '' or '' is coprime with ''. The numbers 8 and 9 are coprime, despite the fact that neither considered individually is a prime number, since 1 is their only common divisor. On the other hand, 6 and 9 are not coprime, because they are both divisible by 3. The numerator and denominator of a reduced fraction are coprime, by definition. Notation and testing Standard notations for relatively prime integers and are: and . In their 1989 textbook '' Concrete Mathematics'', Ronald Graham, Donald Knuth, and Oren Patashnik proposed that the notation a\perp b be used to indicate that and are relatively prime and that the term "prime" be used instead of coprime ...
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Hermite's Identity
In mathematics, Hermite's identity, named after Charles Hermite, gives the value of a summation involving the floor function. It states that for every real number ''x'' and for every positive integer ''n'' the following identity holds:. : \sum_^\left\lfloor x+\frac\right\rfloor=\lfloor nx\rfloor . Proof Split x into its integer part and fractional part The fractional part or decimal part of a non‐negative real number x is the excess beyond that number's integer part. If the latter is defined as the largest integer not greater than , called floor of or \lfloor x\rfloor, its fractional part ca ..., x=\lfloor x\rfloor+\. There is exactly one k'\in\ with :\lfloor x\rfloor=\left\lfloor x+\frac\right\rfloor\le x<\left\lfloor x+\frac\right\rfloor=\lfloor x\rfloor+1. By subtracting the same integer \lfloor x\rfloor from inside the floor operations on the left and right sides of this inequality, it may be rewritten as :0=\left\lfloor \+\frac\right\rfloor\ ...
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Idempotence
Idempotence (, ) is the property of certain operations in mathematics and computer science whereby they can be applied multiple times without changing the result beyond the initial application. The concept of idempotence arises in a number of places in abstract algebra (in particular, in the theory of projectors and closure operators) and functional programming (in which it is connected to the property of referential transparency). The term was introduced by American mathematician Benjamin Peirce in 1870 in the context of elements of algebras that remain invariant when raised to a positive integer power, and literally means "(the quality of having) the same power", from + '' potence'' (same + power). Definition An element x of a set S equipped with a binary operator \cdot is said to be ''idempotent'' under \cdot if : . The ''binary operation'' \cdot is said to be ''idempotent'' if : . Examples * In the monoid (\mathbb, \times) of the natural numbers with multiplication, ...
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Identity Function
Graph of the identity function on the real numbers In mathematics, an identity function, also called an identity relation, identity map or identity transformation, is a function that always returns the value that was used as its argument, unchanged. That is, when is the identity function, the equality is true for all values of to which can be applied. Definition Formally, if is a set, the identity function on is defined to be a function with as its domain and codomain, satisfying In other words, the function value in the codomain is always the same as the input element in the domain . The identity function on is clearly an injective function as well as a surjective function, so it is bijective. The identity function on is often denoted by . In set theory, where a function is defined as a particular kind of binary relation, the identity function is given by the identity relation, or ''diagonal'' of . Algebraic properties If is any function, then we h ...
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