Injective Function
In mathematics, an injective function (also known as injection, or onetoone function) is a function that maps distinct elements of its domain to distinct elements; that is, implies . (Equivalently, implies in the equivalent contrapositive statement.) In other words, every element of the function's codomain is the image of one element of its domain. The term must not be confused with that refers to bijective functions, which are functions such that each element in the codomain is an image of exactly one element in the domain. A homomorphism between algebraic structures is a function that is compatible with the operations of the structures. For all common algebraic structures, and, in particular for vector spaces, an is also called a . However, in the more general context of category theory, the definition of a monomorphism differs from that of an injective homomorphism. This is thus a theorem that they are equivalent for algebraic structures; see for more details. ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Mathematical Intuition
Logical Intuition, or mathematical intuition or rational intuition, is a series of instinctive foresight, knowhow, and savviness often associated with the ability to perceive logical or mathematical truth—and the ability to solve mathematical challenges efficiently. Humans apply logical intuition in proving mathematical theorems, validating logical arguments, developing algorithms and heuristics, and in related contexts where mathematical challenges are involved. The ability to recognize logical or mathematical truth and identify viable methods may vary from person to person, and may even be a result of knowledge and experience, which are subject to cultivation. The ability may not be realizable in a computer program by means other than genetic programming or evolutionary programming. History Plato and Aristotle considered intuition a means for perceiving ideas, significant enough that for Aristotle, intuition comprised the only means of knowing principles that are not subje ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Identity Function
Graph of the identity function on the real numbers In mathematics, an identity function, also called an identity relation, identity map or identity transformation, is a function that always returns the value that was used as its argument, unchanged. That is, when is the identity function, the equality is true for all values of to which can be applied. Definition Formally, if is a set, the identity function on is defined to be a function with as its domain and codomain, satisfying In other words, the function value in the codomain is always the same as the input element in the domain . The identity function on is clearly an injective function as well as a surjective function, so it is bijective. The identity function on is often denoted by . In set theory, where a function is defined as a particular kind of binary relation, the identity function is given by the identity relation, or ''diagonal'' of . Algebraic properties If is any function, then we h ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Inclusion Function
In mathematics, if A is a subset of B, then the inclusion map (also inclusion function, insertion, or canonical injection) is the function \iota that sends each element x of A to x, treated as an element of B: \iota : A\rightarrow B, \qquad \iota(x)=x. A "hooked arrow" () is sometimes used in place of the function arrow above to denote an inclusion map; thus: \iota: A\hookrightarrow B. (However, some authors use this hooked arrow for any embedding.) This and other analogous injective functions from substructures are sometimes called natural injections. Given any morphism f between objects X and Y, if there is an inclusion map into the domain \iota : A \to X, then one can form the restriction f \, \iota of f. In many instances, one can also construct a canonical inclusion into the codomain R \to Y known as the range of f. Applications of inclusion maps Inclusion maps tend to be homomorphisms of algebraic structures; thus, such inclusion maps are embeddings. More precisely, ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Indecomposability (constructive Mathematics)
In intuitionistic analysis and in computable analysis, indecomposability or indivisibility (german: Unzerlegbarkeit, from the adjective ''unzerlegbar'') is the principle that the continuum cannot be partitioned into two nonempty pieces. This principle was established by Brouwer in 1928 English translation of §1 see p.490–492 of: using intuitionistic principles, and can also be proven using Church's thesis. The analogous property in classical analysis is the fact that every continuous function from the continuum to is constant. It follows from the indecomposability principle that any property of real numbers that is ''decided'' (each real number either has or does not have that property) is in fact trivial (either all the real numbers have that property, or else none of them do). Conversely, if a property of real numbers is not trivial, then the property is not decided for all real numbers. This contradicts the law of the excluded middle, according to which every proper ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Constructive Mathematics
In the philosophy of mathematics, constructivism asserts that it is necessary to find (or "construct") a specific example of a mathematical object in order to prove that an example exists. Contrastingly, in classical mathematics, one can prove the existence of a mathematical object without "finding" that object explicitly, by assuming its nonexistence and then deriving a contradiction from that assumption. Such a proof by contradiction might be called nonconstructive, and a constructivist might reject it. The constructive viewpoint involves a verificational interpretation of the existential quantifier, which is at odds with its classical interpretation. There are many forms of constructivism. These include the program of intuitionism founded by Brouwer, the finitism of Hilbert and Bernays, the constructive recursive mathematics of Shanin and Markov, and Bishop's program of constructive analysis. Constructivism also includes the study of constructive set theories such as CZF ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Axiom Of Choice
In mathematics, the axiom of choice, or AC, is an axiom of set theory equivalent to the statement that ''a Cartesian product of a collection of nonempty sets is nonempty''. Informally put, the axiom of choice says that given any collection of sets, each containing at least one element, it is possible to construct a new set by arbitrarily choosing one element from each set, even if the collection is infinite. Formally, it states that for every indexed family (S_i)_ of nonempty sets, there exists an indexed set (x_i)_ such that x_i \in S_i for every i \in I. The axiom of choice was formulated in 1904 by Ernst Zermelo in order to formalize his proof of the wellordering theorem. In many cases, a set arising from choosing elements arbitrarily can be made without invoking the axiom of choice; this is, in particular, the case if the number of sets from which to choose the elements is finite, or if a canonical rule on how to choose the elements is available – some distinguis ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Retract (category Theory)
In category theory, a branch of mathematics, a section is a right inverse of some morphism. Dually, a retraction is a left inverse of some morphism. In other words, if f: X\to Y and g: Y\to X are morphisms whose composition f \circ g: Y\to Y is the identity morphism on Y, then g is a section of f, and f is a retraction of g. Every section is a monomorphism (every morphism with a left inverse is leftcancellative), and every retraction is an epimorphism (every morphism with a right inverse is rightcancellative). In algebra, sections are also called split monomorphisms and retractions are also called split epimorphisms. In an abelian category, if f: X\to Y is a split epimorphism with split monomorphism g: Y\to X, then X is isomorphic to the direct sum of Y and the kernel of f. The synonym coretraction for section is sometimes seen in the literature, although rarely in recent work. Properties * A section that is also an epimorphism is an isomorphism. Dually a retraction that ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Inverse Function
In mathematics, the inverse function of a function (also called the inverse of ) is a function that undoes the operation of . The inverse of exists if and only if is bijective, and if it exists, is denoted by f^ . For a function f\colon X\to Y, its inverse f^\colon Y\to X admits an explicit description: it sends each element y\in Y to the unique element x\in X such that . As an example, consider the realvalued function of a real variable given by . One can think of as the function which multiplies its input by 5 then subtracts 7 from the result. To undo this, one adds 7 to the input, then divides the result by 5. Therefore, the inverse of is the function f^\colon \R\to\R defined by f^(y) = \frac . Definitions Let be a function whose domain is the set , and whose codomain is the set . Then is ''invertible'' if there exists a function from to such that g(f(x))=x for all x\in X and f(g(y))=y for all y\in Y. If is invertible, then there is exactly one function ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Horizontal Line Test
In mathematics, the horizontal line test is a test used to determine whether a function is injective (i.e., onetoone). In calculus A ''horizontal line'' is a straight, flat line that goes from left to right. Given a function f \colon \mathbb \to \mathbb (i.e. from the real numbers to the real numbers), we can decide if it is injective by looking at horizontal lines that intersect the function's graph. If any horizontal line y=c intersects the graph in more than one point, the function is not injective. To see this, note that the points of intersection have the same yvalue (because they lie on the line y=c) but different x values, which by definition means the function cannot be injective. Variations of the horizontal line test can be used to determine whether a function is surjective or bijective: *The function ''f'' is surjective (i.e., onto) if and only if its graph intersects any horizontal line at least once. *''f'' is bijective if and only if any horizontal line will i ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Real Line
In elementary mathematics, a number line is a picture of a graduated straight line that serves as visual representation of the real numbers. Every point of a number line is assumed to correspond to a real number, and every real number to a point. The integers are often shown as speciallymarked points evenly spaced on the line. Although the image only shows the integers from –3 to 3, the line includes all real numbers, continuing forever in each direction, and also numbers that are between the integers. It is often used as an aid in teaching simple addition and subtraction, especially involving negative numbers. In advanced mathematics, the number line can be called as a real line or real number line, formally defined as the set of all real numbers, viewed as a geometric space, namely the Euclidean space of dimension one. It can be thought of as a vector space (or affine space), a metric space, a topological space, a measure space, or a linear continuum. Just like ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Natural Logarithm
The natural logarithm of a number is its logarithm to the base of the mathematical constant , which is an irrational and transcendental number approximately equal to . The natural logarithm of is generally written as , , or sometimes, if the base is implicit, simply . Parentheses are sometimes added for clarity, giving , , or . This is done particularly when the argument to the logarithm is not a single symbol, so as to prevent ambiguity. The natural logarithm of is the power to which would have to be raised to equal . For example, is , because . The natural logarithm of itself, , is , because , while the natural logarithm of is , since . The natural logarithm can be defined for any positive real number as the area under the curve from to (with the area being negative when ). The simplicity of this definition, which is matched in many other formulas involving the natural logarithm, leads to the term "natural". The definition of the natural logarithm can the ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Exponential Function
The exponential function is a mathematical function denoted by f(x)=\exp(x) or e^x (where the argument is written as an exponent). Unless otherwise specified, the term generally refers to the positivevalued function of a real variable, although it can be extended to the complex numbers or generalized to other mathematical objects like matrices or Lie algebras. The exponential function originated from the notion of exponentiation (repeated multiplication), but modern definitions (there are several equivalent characterizations) allow it to be rigorously extended to all real arguments, including irrational numbers. Its ubiquitous occurrence in pure and applied mathematics led mathematician Walter Rudin to opine that the exponential function is "the most important function in mathematics". The exponential function satisfies the exponentiation identity e^ = e^x e^y \text x,y\in\mathbb, which, along with the definition e = \exp(1), shows that e^n=\underbrace_ for positi ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 