Injective
In mathematics, an injective function (also known as injection, or onetoone function) is a function that maps distinct elements of its domain to distinct elements; that is, implies . (Equivalently, implies in the equivalent contrapositive statement.) In other words, every element of the function's codomain is the image of one element of its domain. The term must not be confused with that refers to bijective functions, which are functions such that each element in the codomain is an image of exactly one element in the domain. A homomorphism between algebraic structures is a function that is compatible with the operations of the structures. For all common algebraic structures, and, in particular for vector spaces, an is also called a . However, in the more general context of category theory, the definition of a monomorphism differs from that of an injective homomorphism. This is thus a theorem that they are equivalent for algebraic structures; see for more details. ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Bijective Function
In mathematics, a bijection, also known as a bijective function, onetoone correspondence, or invertible function, is a function between the elements of two sets, where each element of one set is paired with exactly one element of the other set, and each element of the other set is paired with exactly one element of the first set. There are no unpaired elements. In mathematical terms, a bijective function is a onetoone (injective) and onto (surjective) mapping of a set ''X'' to a set ''Y''. The term ''onetoone correspondence'' must not be confused with ''onetoone function'' (an injective function; see figures). A bijection from the set ''X'' to the set ''Y'' has an inverse function from ''Y'' to ''X''. If ''X'' and ''Y'' are finite sets, then the existence of a bijection means they have the same number of elements. For infinite sets, the picture is more complicated, leading to the concept of cardinal number—a way to distinguish the various sizes of infinite sets. ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Inverse Function
In mathematics, the inverse function of a function (also called the inverse of ) is a function that undoes the operation of . The inverse of exists if and only if is bijective, and if it exists, is denoted by f^ . For a function f\colon X\to Y, its inverse f^\colon Y\to X admits an explicit description: it sends each element y\in Y to the unique element x\in X such that . As an example, consider the realvalued function of a real variable given by . One can think of as the function which multiplies its input by 5 then subtracts 7 from the result. To undo this, one adds 7 to the input, then divides the result by 5. Therefore, the inverse of is the function f^\colon \R\to\R defined by f^(y) = \frac . Definitions Let be a function whose domain is the set , and whose codomain is the set . Then is ''invertible'' if there exists a function from to such that g(f(x))=x for all x\in X and f(g(y))=y for all y\in Y. If is invertible, then there is exactly one function ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Function (mathematics)
In mathematics, a function from a set to a set assigns to each element of exactly one element of .; the words map, mapping, transformation, correspondence, and operator are often used synonymously. The set is called the domain of the function and the set is called the codomain of the function.Codomain ''Encyclopedia of Mathematics'Codomain. ''Encyclopedia of Mathematics''/ref> The earliest known approach to the notion of function can be traced back to works of Persian mathematicians AlBiruni and Sharaf alDin alTusi. Functions were originally the idealization of how a varying quantity depends on another quantity. For example, the position of a planet is a ''function'' of time. Historically, the concept was elaborated with the infinitesimal calculus at the end of the 17th century, and, until the 19th century, the functions that were considered were differentiable (that is, they had a high degree of regularity). The concept of a function was formalized at the end of ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Axiom Of Choice
In mathematics, the axiom of choice, or AC, is an axiom of set theory equivalent to the statement that ''a Cartesian product of a collection of nonempty sets is nonempty''. Informally put, the axiom of choice says that given any collection of sets, each containing at least one element, it is possible to construct a new set by arbitrarily choosing one element from each set, even if the collection is infinite. Formally, it states that for every indexed family (S_i)_ of nonempty sets, there exists an indexed set (x_i)_ such that x_i \in S_i for every i \in I. The axiom of choice was formulated in 1904 by Ernst Zermelo in order to formalize his proof of the wellordering theorem. In many cases, a set arising from choosing elements arbitrarily can be made without invoking the axiom of choice; this is, in particular, the case if the number of sets from which to choose the elements is finite, or if a canonical rule on how to choose the elements is available – some distinguis ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Empty Function
In mathematics, a function from a set to a set assigns to each element of exactly one element of .; the words map, mapping, transformation, correspondence, and operator are often used synonymously. The set is called the domain of the function and the set is called the codomain of the function.Codomain ''Encyclopedia of Mathematics'Codomain. ''Encyclopedia of Mathematics''/ref> The earliest known approach to the notion of function can be traced back to works of Persian mathematicians AlBiruni and Sharaf alDin alTusi. Functions were originally the idealization of how a varying quantity depends on another quantity. For example, the position of a planet is a ''function'' of time. Historically, the concept was elaborated with the infinitesimal calculus at the end of the 17th century, and, until the 19th century, the functions that were considered were differentiable (that is, they had a high degree of regularity). The concept of a function was formalized at the end of the ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Injection
Injection or injected may refer to: Science and technology * Injective function, a mathematical function mapping distinct arguments to distinct values * Injection (medicine), insertion of liquid into the body with a syringe * Injection, in broadcasting, the level at which a subcarrier is sent by the transmitter, expressed as a percent of total modulation * Injection quill, used in the petrochemical industry to insert chemicals, typically inhibitors, for proper mixture within a base chemical * Fuel injection, a means of metering fuel into an internal combustion engine * Orbit injection, changing a stable orbit into a transfer orbit * Injection, in construction, insertion of consolidation materials (i.e., cement grout mixtures, gravel) by means of dry type rotary shortcrete high pressure pumps * Injection well * Injection moulding, a technique for making parts from plastic material Computing * Code injection, a security violation technique using unexpected program modification * ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Monomorphism
In the context of abstract algebra or universal algebra, a monomorphism is an injective homomorphism. A monomorphism from to is often denoted with the notation X\hookrightarrow Y. In the more general setting of category theory, a monomorphism (also called a monic morphism or a mono) is a leftcancellative morphism. That is, an arrow such that for all objects and all morphisms , : f \circ g_1 = f \circ g_2 \implies g_1 = g_2. Monomorphisms are a categorical generalization of injective functions (also called "onetoone functions"); in some categories the notions coincide, but monomorphisms are more general, as in the examples below. The categorical dual of a monomorphism is an epimorphism, that is, a monomorphism in a category ''C'' is an epimorphism in the dual category ''C''op. Every section is a monomorphism, and every retraction is an epimorphism. Relation to invertibility Leftinvertible morphisms are necessarily monic: if ''l'' is a left inverse for ''f'' (meanin ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Homomorphism
In algebra, a homomorphism is a morphism, structurepreserving map (mathematics), map between two algebraic structures of the same type (such as two group (mathematics), groups, two ring (mathematics), rings, or two vector spaces). The word ''homomorphism'' comes from the Ancient Greek language: () meaning "same" and () meaning "form" or "shape". However, the word was apparently introduced to mathematics due to a (mis)translation of German meaning "similar" to meaning "same". The term "homomorphism" appeared as early as 1892, when it was attributed to the German mathematician Felix Klein (1849–1925). Homomorphisms of vector spaces are also called linear maps, and their study is the subject of linear algebra. The concept of homomorphism has been generalized, under the name of morphism, to many other structures that either do not have an underlying set, or are not algebraic. This generalization is the starting point of category theory. A homomorphism may also be an isomorphis ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Partial Function
In mathematics, a partial function from a set to a set is a function from a subset of (possibly itself) to . The subset , that is, the domain of viewed as a function, is called the domain of definition of . If equals , that is, if is defined on every element in , then is said to be total. More technically, a partial function is a binary relation over two sets that associates every element of the first set to ''at most'' one element of the second set; it is thus a functional binary relation. It generalizes the concept of a (total) function by not requiring every element of the first set to be associated to ''exactly'' one element of the second set. A partial function is often used when its exact domain of definition is not known or difficult to specify. This is the case in calculus, where, for example, the quotient of two functions is a partial function whose domain of definition cannot contain the zeros of the denominator. For this reason, in calculus, and more ge ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Retract (category Theory)
In category theory, a branch of mathematics, a section is a right inverse of some morphism. Dually, a retraction is a left inverse of some morphism. In other words, if f: X\to Y and g: Y\to X are morphisms whose composition f \circ g: Y\to Y is the identity morphism on Y, then g is a section of f, and f is a retraction of g. Every section is a monomorphism (every morphism with a left inverse is leftcancellative), and every retraction is an epimorphism (every morphism with a right inverse is rightcancellative). In algebra, sections are also called split monomorphisms and retractions are also called split epimorphisms. In an abelian category, if f: X\to Y is a split epimorphism with split monomorphism g: Y\to X, then X is isomorphic to the direct sum of Y and the kernel of f. The synonym coretraction for section is sometimes seen in the literature, although rarely in recent work. Properties * A section that is also an epimorphism is an isomorphism. Dually a retraction that ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Constructive Mathematics
In the philosophy of mathematics, constructivism asserts that it is necessary to find (or "construct") a specific example of a mathematical object in order to prove that an example exists. Contrastingly, in classical mathematics, one can prove the existence of a mathematical object without "finding" that object explicitly, by assuming its nonexistence and then deriving a contradiction from that assumption. Such a proof by contradiction might be called nonconstructive, and a constructivist might reject it. The constructive viewpoint involves a verificational interpretation of the existential quantifier, which is at odds with its classical interpretation. There are many forms of constructivism. These include the program of intuitionism founded by Brouwer, the finitism of Hilbert and Bernays, the constructive recursive mathematics of Shanin and Markov, and Bishop's program of constructive analysis. Constructivism also includes the study of constructive set theories such as CZF ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Horizontal Line Test
In mathematics, the horizontal line test is a test used to determine whether a function is injective (i.e., onetoone). In calculus A ''horizontal line'' is a straight, flat line that goes from left to right. Given a function f \colon \mathbb \to \mathbb (i.e. from the real numbers to the real numbers), we can decide if it is injective by looking at horizontal lines that intersect the function's graph. If any horizontal line y=c intersects the graph in more than one point, the function is not injective. To see this, note that the points of intersection have the same yvalue (because they lie on the line y=c) but different x values, which by definition means the function cannot be injective. Variations of the horizontal line test can be used to determine whether a function is surjective or bijective: *The function ''f'' is surjective (i.e., onto) if and only if its graph intersects any horizontal line at least once. *''f'' is bijective if and only if any horizontal line will i ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 