Homotopy Group
In mathematics, homotopy groups are used in algebraic topology to classify topological spaces. The first and simplest homotopy group is the fundamental group, denoted \pi_1(X), which records information about loops in a space. Intuitively, homotopy groups record information about the basic shape, or '' holes'', of a topological space. To define the ''n''th homotopy group, the basepointpreserving maps from an ''n''dimensional sphere (with base point) into a given space (with base point) are collected into equivalence classes, called homotopy classes. Two mappings are homotopic if one can be continuously deformed into the other. These homotopy classes form a group, called the ''n''th homotopy group, \pi_n(X), of the given space ''X'' with base point. Topological spaces with differing homotopy groups are never equivalent (homeomorphic), but topological spaces that homeomorphic have the same homotopy groups. The notion of homotopy of paths was introduced by Camille Jordan ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Homotopy Groups Of Spheres
In the mathematical field of algebraic topology, the homotopy groups of spheres describe how spheres of various dimensions can wrap around each other. They are examples of topological invariants, which reflect, in algebraic terms, the structure of spheres viewed as topological spaces, forgetting about their precise geometry. Unlike homology groups, which are also topological invariants, the homotopy groups are surprisingly complex and difficult to compute. The dimensional unit sphere — called the sphere for brevity, and denoted as — generalizes the familiar circle () and the ordinary sphere (). The sphere may be defined geometrically as the set of points in a Euclidean space of dimension located at a unit distance from the origin. The th ''homotopy group'' summarizes the different ways in which the dimensional sphere can be mapped continuously into the sphere . This summary does not distinguish between two mappings if one can be continuously deformed to the othe ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Mathematics
Mathematics is an area of knowledge that includes the topics of numbers, formulas and related structures, shapes and the spaces in which they are contained, and quantities and their changes. These topics are represented in modern mathematics with the major subdisciplines of number theory, algebra, geometry, and mathematical analysis, analysis, respectively. There is no general consensus among mathematicians about a common definition for their academic discipline. Most mathematical activity involves the discovery of properties of mathematical object, abstract objects and the use of pure reason to proof (mathematics), prove them. These objects consist of either abstraction (mathematics), abstractions from nature orin modern mathematicsentities that are stipulated to have certain properties, called axioms. A ''proof'' consists of a succession of applications of inference rule, deductive rules to already established results. These results include previously proved theorems, axioms ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Group (mathematics)
In mathematics, a group is a set and an operation that combines any two elements of the set to produce a third element of the set, in such a way that the operation is associative, an identity element exists and every element has an inverse. These three axioms hold for number systems and many other mathematical structures. For example, the integers together with the addition operation form a group. The concept of a group and the axioms that define it were elaborated for handling, in a unified way, essential structural properties of very different mathematical entities such as numbers, geometric shapes and polynomial roots. Because the concept of groups is ubiquitous in numerous areas both within and outside mathematics, some authors consider it as a central organizing principle of contemporary mathematics. In geometry groups arise naturally in the study of symmetries and geometric transformations: The symmetries of an object form a group, called the symmetry group of th ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Wedge Sum
In topology, the wedge sum is a "onepoint union" of a family of topological spaces. Specifically, if ''X'' and ''Y'' are pointed spaces (i.e. topological spaces with distinguished basepoints x_0 and y_0) the wedge sum of ''X'' and ''Y'' is the quotient space of the disjoint union of ''X'' and ''Y'' by the identification x_0 \sim y_0: X \vee Y = (X \amalg Y)\;/, where \,\sim\, is the equivalence closure of the relation \left\. More generally, suppose \left(X_i\right)_ is a indexed family of pointed spaces with basepoints \left(p_i\right)_. The wedge sum of the family is given by: \bigvee_ X_i = \coprod_ X_i\;/, where \,\sim\, is the equivalence closure of the relation \left\. In other words, the wedge sum is the joining of several spaces at a single point. This definition is sensitive to the choice of the basepoints \left(p_i\right)_, unless the spaces \left(X_i\right)_ are homogeneous. The wedge sum is again a pointed space, and the binary operation is associative and co ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Homotopy Group Addition
In topology, a branch of mathematics, two continuous functions from one topological space to another are called homotopic (from grc, ὁμός "same, similar" and "place") if one can be "continuously deformed" into the other, such a deformation being called a homotopy (, ; , ) between the two functions. A notable use of homotopy is the definition of homotopy groups and cohomotopy groups, important invariants in algebraic topology. In practice, there are technical difficulties in using homotopies with certain spaces. Algebraic topologists work with compactly generated spaces, CW complexes, or spectra. Formal definition Formally, a homotopy between two continuous functions ''f'' and ''g'' from a topological space ''X'' to a topological space ''Y'' is defined to be a continuous function H: X \times ,1\to Y from the product of the space ''X'' with the unit interval , 1to ''Y'' such that H(x,0) = f(x) and H(x,1) = g(x) for all x \in X. If we think of the second ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Boundary (topology)
In topology and mathematics in general, the boundary of a subset of a topological space is the set of points in the closure of not belonging to the interior of . An element of the boundary of is called a boundary point of . The term boundary operation refers to finding or taking the boundary of a set. Notations used for boundary of a set include \operatorname(S), \operatorname(S), and \partial S. Some authors (for example Willard, in ''General Topology'') use the term frontier instead of boundary in an attempt to avoid confusion with a different definition used in algebraic topology and the theory of manifolds. Despite widespread acceptance of the meaning of the terms boundary and frontier, they have sometimes been used to refer to other sets. For example, ''Metric Spaces'' by E. T. Copson uses the term boundary to refer to Hausdorff's border, which is defined as the intersection of a set with its boundary. Hausdorff also introduced the term residue, which is defi ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Hypercube
In geometry, a hypercube is an ''n''dimensional analogue of a square () and a cube (). It is a closed, compact, convex figure whose 1skeleton consists of groups of opposite parallel line segments aligned in each of the space's dimensions, perpendicular to each other and of the same length. A unit hypercube's longest diagonal in ''n'' dimensions is equal to \sqrt. An ''n''dimensional hypercube is more commonly referred to as an ''n''cube or sometimes as an ''n''dimensional cube. The term measure polytope (originally from Elte, 1912) is also used, notably in the work of H. S. M. Coxeter who also labels the hypercubes the γn polytopes. The hypercube is the special case of a hyperrectangle (also called an ''northotope''). A ''unit hypercube'' is a hypercube whose side has length one unit. Often, the hypercube whose corners (or ''vertices'') are the 2''n'' points in R''n'' with each coordinate equal to 0 or 1 is called ''the'' unit hypercube. Construction A hype ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Nsphere
In mathematics, an sphere or a hypersphere is a topological space that is homeomorphic to a ''standard'' ''sphere'', which is the set of points in dimensional Euclidean space that are situated at a constant distance from a fixed point, called the ''center''. It is the generalization of an ordinary sphere in the ordinary threedimensional space. The "radius" of a sphere is the constant distance of its points to the center. When the sphere has unit radius, it is usual to call it the unit sphere or simply the sphere for brevity. In terms of the standard norm, the sphere is defined as : S^n = \left\ , and an sphere of radius can be defined as : S^n(r) = \left\ . The dimension of sphere is , and must not be confused with the dimension of the Euclidean space in which it is naturally embedded. An sphere is the surface or boundary of an dimensional ball. In particular: *the pair of points at the ends of a (onedimensional) line segment is a 0sphere, *a circle, which ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Universal Cover
A covering of a topological space X is a continuous map \pi : E \rightarrow X with special properties. Definition Let X be a topological space. A covering of X is a continuous map : \pi : E \rightarrow X such that there exists a discrete space D and for every x \in X an open neighborhood U \subset X, such that \pi^(U)= \displaystyle \bigsqcup_ V_d and \pi, _:V_d \rightarrow U is a homeomorphism for every d \in D . Often, the notion of a covering is used for the covering space E as well as for the map \pi : E \rightarrow X. The open sets V_ are called sheets, which are uniquely determined up to a homeomorphism if U is connected. For each x \in X the discrete subset \pi^(x) is called the fiber of x. The degree of a covering is the cardinality of the space D. If E is pathconnected, then the covering \pi : E \rightarrow X is denoted as a pathconnected covering. Examples * For every topological space X there exists the covering \pi:X \rightarrow X with \pi(x)=x, which is ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Sphere
A sphere () is a geometrical object that is a threedimensional analogue to a twodimensional circle. A sphere is the set of points that are all at the same distance from a given point in threedimensional space.. That given point is the centre of the sphere, and is the sphere's radius. The earliest known mentions of spheres appear in the work of the ancient Greek mathematicians. The sphere is a fundamental object in many fields of mathematics. Spheres and nearlyspherical shapes also appear in nature and industry. Bubbles such as soap bubbles take a spherical shape in equilibrium. The Earth is often approximated as a sphere in geography, and the celestial sphere is an important concept in astronomy. Manufactured items including pressure vessels and most curved mirrors and lenses are based on spheres. Spheres roll smoothly in any direction, so most balls used in sports and toys are spherical, as are ball bearings. Basic terminology As mentioned earlier is th ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Torus
In geometry, a torus (plural tori, colloquially donut or doughnut) is a surface of revolution generated by revolving a circle in threedimensional space about an axis that is coplanar with the circle. If the axis of revolution does not touch the circle, the surface has a ring shape and is called a torus of revolution. If the axis of revolution is tangent to the circle, the surface is a horn torus. If the axis of revolution passes twice through the circle, the surface is a spindle torus. If the axis of revolution passes through the center of the circle, the surface is a degenerate torus, a doublecovered sphere. If the revolved curve is not a circle, the surface is called a '' toroid'', as in a square toroid. Realworld objects that approximate a torus of revolution include swim rings, inner tubes and ringette rings. Eyeglass lenses that combine spherical and cylindrical correction are toric lenses. A torus should not be confused with a '' solid torus'', which is ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Topology
In mathematics, topology (from the Greek words , and ) is concerned with the properties of a geometric object that are preserved under continuous deformations, such as stretching, twisting, crumpling, and bending; that is, without closing holes, opening holes, tearing, gluing, or passing through itself. A topological space is a set endowed with a structure, called a '' topology'', which allows defining continuous deformation of subspaces, and, more generally, all kinds of continuity. Euclidean spaces, and, more generally, metric spaces are examples of a topological space, as any distance or metric defines a topology. The deformations that are considered in topology are homeomorphisms and homotopies. A property that is invariant under such deformations is a topological property. Basic examples of topological properties are: the dimension, which allows distinguishing between a line and a surface; compactness, which allows distinguishing between a line and a circle; ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 