Hash Function
A hash function is any function that can be used to map data of arbitrary size to fixedsize values. The values returned by a hash function are called ''hash values'', ''hash codes'', ''digests'', or simply ''hashes''. The values are usually used to index a fixedsize table called a ''hash table''. Use of a hash function to index a hash table is called ''hashing'' or ''scatter storage addressing''. Hash functions and their associated hash tables are used in data storage and retrieval applications to access data in a small and nearly constant time per retrieval. They require an amount of storage space only fractionally greater than the total space required for the data or records themselves. Hashing is a computationally and storage spaceefficient form of data access that avoids the nonconstant access time of ordered and unordered lists and structured trees, and the often exponential storage requirements of direct access of state spaces of large or variablelength keys. Use o ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Hash Table 4 1 1 0 0 1 0 LL
Hash, hashes, hash mark, or hashing may refer to: Substances * Hash (food), a coarse mixture of ingredients * Hash, a nickname for hashish, a cannabis product Hash mark * Hash mark (sports), a marking on hockey rinks and gridiron football fields * Hatch mark, a form of mathematical notation * Number sign (#), also known as the hash, hash mark, or (in American English) pound sign * Service stripe, a military and paramilitary decoration * Tally mark, a counting notation Computing * Hash function, an encoding of data into a small, fixed size; used in hash tables and cryptography * Hash table, a data structure using hash functions * Cryptographic hash function, a hash function used to authenticate message integrity * URI fragment, in computer hypertext, a string of characters that refers to a subordinate resource * Geohash, a spatial data structure which subdivides space into buckets of grid shape * Hashtag A hashtag is a metadata tag that is prefaced by the hash (also k ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Quadratic Probing
Quadratic probing is an open addressing scheme in computer programming Computer programming is the process of performing a particular computation (or more generally, accomplishing a specific computing result), usually by designing and building an executable computer program. Programming involves tasks such as anal ... for resolving hash collisions in hash tables. Quadratic probing operates by taking the original hash index and adding successive values of an arbitrary quadratic polynomial until an open slot is found. An example sequence using quadratic probing is: H + 1^2 , H + 2^2 , H + 3^2 , H + 4^2 , ... , H + k^2 Quadratic probing can be a more efficient algorithm in an open addressing table, since it better avoids the clustering problem that can occur with linear probing, although it is not immune. It also provides good memory caching because it preserves some locality of reference; however, linear probing has greater locality and, thus, better cache performance. ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Computer Graphics
Computer graphics deals with generating images with the aid of computers. Today, computer graphics is a core technology in digital photography, film, video games, cell phone and computer displays, and many specialized applications. A great deal of specialized hardware and software has been developed, with the displays of most devices being driven by computer graphics hardware. It is a vast and recently developed area of computer science. The phrase was coined in 1960 by computer graphics researchers Verne Hudson and William Fetter of Boeing. It is often abbreviated as CG, or typically in the context of film as computer generated imagery (CGI). The nonartistic aspects of computer graphics are the subject of computer science research. Some topics in computer graphics include user interface design, sprite graphics, rendering, ray tracing, geometry processing, computer animation, vector graphics, 3D modeling, shaders, GPU design, implicit surfaces, visualization, scien ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Tuple
In mathematics, a tuple is a finite ordered list (sequence) of elements. An tuple is a sequence (or ordered list) of elements, where is a nonnegative integer. There is only one 0tuple, referred to as ''the empty tuple''. An tuple is defined inductively using the construction of an ordered pair. Mathematicians usually write tuples by listing the elements within parentheses "" and separated by a comma and a space; for example, denotes a 5tuple. Sometimes other symbols are used to surround the elements, such as square brackets " nbsp; or angle brackets "⟨ ⟩". Braces "" are used to specify arrays in some programming languages but not in mathematical expressions, as they are the standard notation for sets. The term ''tuple'' can often occur when discussing other mathematical objects, such as vectors. In computer science, tuples come in many forms. Most typed functional programming languages implement tuples directly as product types, tightly associated with alge ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Grid File
In computer science, a grid file or bucket grid is a point access method which splits a space into a nonperiodic grid where one or more cells of the grid refer to a small set of points. Grid files (a symmetric data structure) provide an efficient method of storing these indexes on disk to perform complex data lookups. It provides a grid of ''n''dimensions where ''n'' represents how many keys can be used to reference a single point. Grid files do not contain any data themselves but instead contain references to the correct bucket. Uses A grid file is usually used in cases where a single value can be referenced by multiple keys. A grid file began being used because "traditional file structures that provide multikey access to records, for example, inverted files, are extensions of file structures originally designed for singlekey access. They manifest various deficiencies in particular for multikey access to highly dynamic files."J. Nievergelt, H. Hinterberger ''The Grid File: An ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Partition (mathematics)
Generally, a partition is a division of a whole into nonoverlapping parts. Among the kinds of partitions considered in mathematics are * partition of a set or an ordered partition of a set, * partition of a graph, * partition of an integer, * partition of an interval, * partition of unity, * partition of a matrix; see block matrix, and * partition of the sum of squares in statistics problems, especially in the analysis of variance, * quotition and partition, two ways of viewing the operation of division of integers. Integer partitions * Composition (number theory) * Ewens's sampling formula * Ferrers graph * Glaisher's theorem * Landau's function * Partition function (number theory) * Pentagonal number theorem * Plane partition * Quotition and partition * Rank of a partition ** Crank of a partition * Solid partition * Young tableau * Young's lattice Set partitions {{main, Partition of a set * Bell number * Bell polynom ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Metric Space
In mathematics, a metric space is a set together with a notion of '' distance'' between its elements, usually called points. The distance is measured by a function called a metric or distance function. Metric spaces are the most general setting for studying many of the concepts of mathematical analysis and geometry. The most familiar example of a metric space is 3dimensional Euclidean space with its usual notion of distance. Other wellknown examples are a sphere equipped with the angular distance and the hyperbolic plane. A metric may correspond to a metaphorical, rather than physical, notion of distance: for example, the set of 100character Unicode strings can be equipped with the Hamming distance, which measures the number of characters that need to be changed to get from one string to another. Since they are very general, metric spaces are a tool used in many different branches of mathematics. Many types of mathematical objects have a natural notion of distance an ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Geometric Hashing
In computer science, geometric hashing is a method for efficiently finding twodimensional objects represented by discrete points that have undergone an affine transformation, though extensions exist to other object representations and transformations. In an offline step, the objects are encoded by treating each pair of points as a geometric basis. The remaining points can be represented in an invariant fashion with respect to this basis using two parameters. For each point, its quantized transformed coordinates are stored in the hash table as a key, and indices of the basis points as a value. Then a new pair of basis points is selected, and the process is repeated. In the online (recognition) step, randomly selected pairs of data points are considered as candidate bases. For each candidate basis, the remaining data points are encoded according to the basis and possible correspondences from the object are found in the previously constructed table. The candidate basis is accepte ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Set (computer Science)
In computer science, a set is an abstract data type that can store unique values, without any particular order. It is a computer implementation of the mathematical concept of a finite set. Unlike most other collection types, rather than retrieving a specific element from a set, one typically tests a value for membership in a set. Some set data structures are designed for static or frozen sets that do not change after they are constructed. Static sets allow only query operations on their elements — such as checking whether a given value is in the set, or enumerating the values in some arbitrary order. Other variants, called dynamic or mutable sets, allow also the insertion and deletion of elements from the set. A multiset is a special kind of set in which an element can appear multiple times in the set. Type theory In type theory, sets are generally identified with their indicator function (characteristic function): accordingly, a set of values of type A may be denoted by 2^ o ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Element (mathematics)
In mathematics, an element (or member) of a set is any one of the distinct objects that belong to that set. Sets Writing A = \ means that the elements of the set are the numbers 1, 2, 3 and 4. Sets of elements of , for example \, are subsets of . Sets can themselves be elements. For example, consider the set B = \. The elements of are ''not'' 1, 2, 3, and 4. Rather, there are only three elements of , namely the numbers 1 and 2, and the set \. The elements of a set can be anything. For example, C = \ is the set whose elements are the colors , and . Notation and terminology The relation "is an element of", also called set membership, is denoted by the symbol "∈". Writing :x \in A means that "''x'' is an element of ''A''". Equivalent expressions are "''x'' is a member of ''A''", "''x'' belongs to ''A''", "''x'' is in ''A''" and "''x'' lies in ''A''". The expressions "''A'' includes ''x''" and "''A'' contains ''x''" are also used to mea ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Data Structure
In computer science, a data structure is a data organization, management, and storage format that is usually chosen for efficient access to data. More precisely, a data structure is a collection of data values, the relationships among them, and the functions or operations that can be applied to the data, i.e., it is an algebraic structure about data. Usage Data structures serve as the basis for abstract data types (ADT). The ADT defines the logical form of the data type. The data structure implements the physical form of the data type. Different types of data structures are suited to different kinds of applications, and some are highly specialized to specific tasks. For example, relational databases commonly use Btree indexes for data retrieval, while compiler implementations usually use hash tables to look up identifiers. Data structures provide a means to manage large amounts of data efficiently for uses such as large databases and internet indexing services. Usua ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Probability
Probability is the branch of mathematics concerning numerical descriptions of how likely an event is to occur, or how likely it is that a proposition is true. The probability of an event is a number between 0 and 1, where, roughly speaking, 0 indicates impossibility of the event and 1 indicates certainty."Kendall's Advanced Theory of Statistics, Volume 1: Distribution Theory", Alan Stuart and Keith Ord, 6th Ed, (2009), .William Feller, ''An Introduction to Probability Theory and Its Applications'', (Vol 1), 3rd Ed, (1968), Wiley, . The higher the probability of an event, the more likely it is that the event will occur. A simple example is the tossing of a fair (unbiased) coin. Since the coin is fair, the two outcomes ("heads" and "tails") are both equally probable; the probability of "heads" equals the probability of "tails"; and since no other outcomes are possible, the probability of either "heads" or "tails" is 1/2 (which could also be written as 0.5 or 50%). These con ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 