* picture info Greatest Element In mathematics, especially in order theory, the greatest element of a subset S of a partially ordered set (poset) is an element of S that is greater than every other element of S. The term least element is defined dually, that is, it is an element of S that is smaller than every other element of S. Definitions Let (P, \leq) be a preordered set and let S \subseteq P. An element g \in P is said to be if g \in S and if it also satisfies: :s \leq g for all s \in S. By using \,\geq\, instead of \,\leq\, in the above definition, the definition of a least element of S is obtained. Explicitly, an element l \in P is said to be if l \in S and if it also satisfies: :l \leq s for all s \in S. If (P, \leq) is even a partially ordered set then S can have at most one greatest element and it can have at most one least element. Whenever a greatest element of S exists and is unique then this element is called greatest element of S. The terminology least element of S is defined simil ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Lattice Of The Divisibility Of 60 Narrow 1,2,3,4 Lattice may refer to: Arts and design * Latticework, an ornamental criss-crossed framework, an arrangement of crossing laths or other thin strips of material * Lattice (music), an organized grid model of pitch ratios * Lattice (pastry), an ornamental pattern of crossing strips of pastry Companies * Lattice Engines, a technology company specializing in business applications for marketing and sales * Lattice Group, a former British gas transmission business * Lattice Semiconductor, a US-based integrated circuit manufacturer Science, technology, and mathematics Mathematics * Lattice (group), a repeating arrangement of points ** Lattice (discrete subgroup), a discrete subgroup of a topological group whose quotient carries an invariant finite Borel measure ** Lattice (module), a module over a ring which is embedded in a vector space over a field ** Lattice graph, a graph that can be drawn within a repeating arrangement of points ** Lattice-based cryptography, encryption systems b ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Antisymmetry In linguistics, antisymmetry is a syntactic theory presented in Richard S. Kayne's 1994 monograph ''The Antisymmetry of Syntax''. It asserts that grammatical hierarchies in natural language follow a universal order, namely specifier-head-complement branching order. The theory is built on the foundation of X-bar theory. Kayne hypothesizes that all phrases whose surface order is not specifier-head-complement have undergone syntactic movements that disrupt this underlying order. Others have posited specifier-complement-head as the basic word order. Antisymmetry as a principle of word order is reliant on X-bar notions such as specifier and complement, the existence of order-altering mechanisms such as movement, and disputed by constituency structure theories (as opposed to dependency structure theories). Asymmetric c-command C-command is a relation between tree nodes, as defined by Tanya Reinhart. Kayne uses a simple definition of c-command based on the "first node up". However ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Initial And Terminal Objects In category theory, a branch of mathematics, an initial object of a category is an object in such that for every object in , there exists precisely one morphism . The dual notion is that of a terminal object (also called terminal element): is terminal if for every object in there exists exactly one morphism . Initial objects are also called coterminal or universal, and terminal objects are also called final. If an object is both initial and terminal, it is called a zero object or null object. A pointed category is one with a zero object. A strict initial object is one for which every morphism into is an isomorphism. Examples * The empty set is the unique initial object in Set, the category of sets. Every one-element set (singleton) is a terminal object in this category; there are no zero objects. Similarly, the empty space is the unique initial object in Top, the category of topological spaces and every one-point space is a terminal object in this category. * In ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Essential Supremum And Essential Infimum In mathematics, the concepts of essential infimum and essential supremum are related to the notions of infimum and supremum, but adapted to measure theory and functional analysis, where one often deals with statements that are not valid for ''all'' elements in a set, but rather '' almost everywhere'', i.e., except on a set of measure zero. While the exact definition is not immediately straightforward, intuitively the essential supremum of a function is the smallest value that is greater than or equal to the function values everywhere while ignoring what the function does at a set of points of measure zero. For example, if one takes the function f(x) that is equal to zero everywhere except at x=0 where f(0)=1, then the supremum of the function equals one. However, its essential supremum is zero because we are allowed to ignore what the function does at the single point where f is peculiar. The essential infimum is defined in a similar way. Definition As is often the case in m ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Lexicographical Order In mathematics, the lexicographic or lexicographical order (also known as lexical order, or dictionary order) is a generalization of the alphabetical order of the dictionaries to sequences of ordered symbols or, more generally, of elements of a totally ordered set. There are several variants and generalizations of the lexicographical ordering. One variant applies to sequences of different lengths by comparing the lengths of the sequences before considering their elements. Another variant, widely used in combinatorics, orders subsets of a given finite set by assigning a total order to the finite set, and converting subsets into increasing sequences, to which the lexicographical order is applied. A generalization defines an order on a Cartesian product of partially ordered sets; this order is a total order if and only if all factors of the Cartesian product are totally ordered. Motivation and definition The words in a lexicon (the set of words used in some language) have a ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Product Order In mathematics, given two preordered sets A and B, the product order (also called the coordinatewise orderDavey & Priestley, '' Introduction to Lattices and Order'' (Second Edition), 2002, p. 18 or componentwise order) is a partial ordering on the Cartesian product A \times B. Given two pairs \left(a_1, b_1\right) and \left(a_2, b_2\right) in A \times B, declare that \left(a_1, b_1\right) \leq \left(a_2, b_2\right) if and only if a_1 \leq a_2 and b_1 \leq b_2. Another possible ordering on A \times B is the lexicographical order, which is a total ordering. However the product order of two totally ordered sets is not in general total; for example, the pairs (0, 1) and (1, 0) are incomparable in the product order of the ordering 0 < 1 with itself. The lexicographic order of totally ordered sets is a linear extension of their product order, and ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Rational Number In mathematics, a rational number is a number that can be expressed as the quotient or fraction of two integers, a numerator and a non-zero denominator . For example, is a rational number, as is every integer (e.g. ). The set of all rational numbers, also referred to as "the rationals", the field of rationals or the field of rational numbers is usually denoted by boldface , or blackboard bold \mathbb. A rational number is a real number. The real numbers that are rational are those whose decimal expansion either terminates after a finite number of digits (example: ), or eventually begins to repeat the same finite sequence of digits over and over (example: ). This statement is true not only in base 10, but also in every other integer base, such as the binary and hexadecimal ones (see ). A real number that is not rational is called irrational. Irrational numbers include , , , and . Since the set of rational numbers is countable, and the set of real numbers is uncounta ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Integer An integer is the number zero (), a positive natural number (, , , etc.) or a negative integer with a minus sign (−1, −2, −3, etc.). The negative numbers are the additive inverses of the corresponding positive numbers. In the language of mathematics, the set of integers is often denoted by the boldface or blackboard bold \mathbb. The set of natural numbers \mathbb is a subset of \mathbb, which in turn is a subset of the set of all rational numbers \mathbb, itself a subset of the real numbers \mathbb. Like the natural numbers, \mathbb is countably infinite. An integer may be regarded as a real number that can be written without a fractional component. For example, 21, 4, 0, and −2048 are integers, while 9.75, , and  are not. The integers form the smallest group and the smallest ring containing the natural numbers. In algebraic number theory, the integers are sometimes qualified as rational integers to distinguish them from the more general algebraic intege ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Completeness (order Theory) In the mathematical area of order theory, completeness properties assert the existence of certain infima or suprema of a given partially ordered set (poset). The most familiar example is the completeness of the real numbers. A special use of the term refers to complete partial orders or complete lattices. However, many other interesting notions of completeness exist. The motivation for considering completeness properties derives from the great importance of suprema (least upper bounds, joins, "\vee") and infima (greatest lower bounds, meets, "\wedge") to the theory of partial orders. Finding a supremum means to single out one distinguished least element from the set of upper bounds. On the one hand, these special elements often embody certain concrete properties that are interesting for the given application (such as being the least common multiple of a set of numbers or the union of a collection of sets). On the other hand, the knowledge that certain types of subsets are gua ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Complemented Lattice In the mathematical discipline of order theory, a complemented lattice is a bounded lattice (with least element 0 and greatest element 1), in which every element ''a'' has a complement, i.e. an element ''b'' satisfying ''a'' ∨ ''b'' = 1 and ''a'' ∧ ''b'' = 0. Complements need not be unique. A relatively complemented lattice is a lattice such that every interval 'c'', ''d'' viewed as a bounded lattice in its own right, is a complemented lattice. An orthocomplementation on a complemented lattice is an involution that is order-reversing and maps each element to a complement. An orthocomplemented lattice satisfying a weak form of the modular law is called an orthomodular lattice. In distributive lattices, complements are unique. Every complemented distributive lattice has a unique orthocomplementation and is in fact a Boolean algebra. Definition and basic properties A complemented lattice is a bounded lattice (with least element 0 ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Chain (order Theory) In mathematics, a total or linear order is a partial order in which any two elements are comparable. That is, a total order is a binary relation \leq on some set X, which satisfies the following for all a, b and c in X: # a \leq a ( reflexive). # If a \leq b and b \leq c then a \leq c ( transitive). # If a \leq b and b \leq a then a = b ( antisymmetric). # a \leq b or b \leq a (strongly connected, formerly called total). Total orders are sometimes also called simple, connex, or full orders. A set equipped with a total order is a totally ordered set; the terms simply ordered set, linearly ordered set, and loset are also used. The term ''chain'' is sometimes defined as a synonym of ''totally ordered set'', but refers generally to some sort of totally ordered subsets of a given partially ordered set. An extension of a given partial order to a total order is called a linear extension of that partial order. Strict and non-strict total orders A on a set X is a strict partial o ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu]