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Free Boolean Algebra
In mathematics, a free Boolean algebra is a Boolean algebra with a distinguished set of elements, called ''generators'', such that: #Each element of the Boolean algebra can be expressed as a finite combination of generators, using the Boolean operations, and #The generators are as ''independent'' as possible, in the sense that there are no relationships among them (again in terms of finite expressions using the Boolean operations) that do not hold in ''every'' Boolean algebra no matter ''which'' elements are chosen. A simple example The generators of a free Boolean algebra can represent independent propositions. Consider, for example, the propositions "John is tall" and "Mary is rich". These generate a Boolean algebra with four atoms, namely: *John is tall, and Mary is rich; *John is tall, and Mary is not rich; *John is not tall, and Mary is rich; *John is not tall, and Mary is not rich. Other elements of the Boolean algebra are then logical disjunctions of the atoms, such as "J ...
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Mathematics
Mathematics is an area of knowledge that includes the topics of numbers, formulas and related structures, shapes and the spaces in which they are contained, and quantities and their changes. These topics are represented in modern mathematics with the major subdisciplines of number theory, algebra, geometry, and analysis, respectively. There is no general consensus among mathematicians about a common definition for their academic discipline. Most mathematical activity involves the discovery of properties of abstract objects and the use of pure reason to prove them. These objects consist of either abstractions from nature orin modern mathematicsentities that are stipulated to have certain properties, called axioms. A ''proof'' consists of a succession of applications of deductive rules to already established results. These results include previously proved theorems, axioms, andin case of abstraction from naturesome basic properties that are considered true starting points of t ...
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Generating Set
In mathematics and physics, the term generator or generating set may refer to any of a number of related concepts. The underlying concept in each case is that of a smaller set of objects, together with a set of operations that can be applied to it, that result in the creation of a larger collection of objects, called the generated set. The larger set is then said to be generated by the smaller set. It is commonly the case that the generating set has a simpler set of properties than the generated set, thus making it easier to discuss and examine. It is usually the case that properties of the generating set are in some way preserved by the act of generation; likewise, the properties of the generated set are often reflected in the generating set. List of generators A list of examples of generating sets follow. * Generating set or spanning set of a vector space: a set that spans the vector space * Generating set of a group: A subset of a group that is not contained in any sub ...
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Stone's Representation Theorem For Boolean Algebras
In mathematics, Stone's representation theorem for Boolean algebras states that every Boolean algebra is isomorphic to a certain field of sets. The theorem is fundamental to the deeper understanding of Boolean algebra that emerged in the first half of the 20th century. The theorem was first proved by Marshall H. Stone. Stone was led to it by his study of the spectral theory of operators on a Hilbert space. Stone spaces Each Boolean algebra ''B'' has an associated topological space, denoted here ''S''(''B''), called its Stone space. The points in ''S''(''B'') are the ultrafilters on ''B'', or equivalently the homomorphisms from ''B'' to the two-element Boolean algebra. The topology on ''S''(''B'') is generated by a (closed) basis consisting of all sets of the form \, where ''b'' is an element of ''B''. This is the topology of pointwise convergence of nets of homomorphisms into the two-element Boolean algebra. For every Boolean algebra ''B'', ''S''(''B'') is a compact totall ...
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Topology
In mathematics, topology (from the Greek words , and ) is concerned with the properties of a geometric object that are preserved under continuous deformations, such as stretching, twisting, crumpling, and bending; that is, without closing holes, opening holes, tearing, gluing, or passing through itself. A topological space is a set endowed with a structure, called a '' topology'', which allows defining continuous deformation of subspaces, and, more generally, all kinds of continuity. Euclidean spaces, and, more generally, metric spaces are examples of a topological space, as any distance or metric defines a topology. The deformations that are considered in topology are homeomorphisms and homotopies. A property that is invariant under such deformations is a topological property. Basic examples of topological properties are: the dimension, which allows distinguishing between a line and a surface; compactness, which allows distinguishing between a line and a circle; co ...
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Cardinality
In mathematics, the cardinality of a set is a measure of the number of elements of the set. For example, the set A = \ contains 3 elements, and therefore A has a cardinality of 3. Beginning in the late 19th century, this concept was generalized to infinite sets, which allows one to distinguish between different types of infinity, and to perform arithmetic on them. There are two approaches to cardinality: one which compares sets directly using bijections and injections, and another which uses cardinal numbers. The cardinality of a set is also called its size, when no confusion with other notions of size is possible. The cardinality of a set A is usually denoted , A, , with a vertical bar on each side; this is the same notation as absolute value, and the meaning depends on context. The cardinality of a set A may alternatively be denoted by n(A), , \operatorname(A), or \#A. History A crude sense of cardinality, an awareness that groups of things or events compare with other grou ...
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Countable Set
In mathematics, a set is countable if either it is finite or it can be made in one to one correspondence with the set of natural numbers. Equivalently, a set is ''countable'' if there exists an injective function from it into the natural numbers; this means that each element in the set may be associated to a unique natural number, or that the elements of the set can be counted one at a time, although the counting may never finish due to an infinite number of elements. In more technical terms, assuming the axiom of countable choice, a set is ''countable'' if its cardinality (its number of elements) is not greater than that of the natural numbers. A countable set that is not finite is said countably infinite. The concept is attributed to Georg Cantor, who proved the existence of uncountable sets, that is, sets that are not countable; for example the set of the real numbers. A note on terminology Although the terms "countable" and "countably infinite" as defined here are ...
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Cantor Algebra
In mathematics, a Cantor algebra, named after Georg Cantor, is one of two closely related Boolean algebras, one countable and one complete. The countable Cantor algebra is the Boolean algebra of all clopen subsets of the Cantor set. This is the free Boolean algebra on a countable number of generators. Up to isomorphism, this is the only nontrivial Boolean algebra that is both countable and atomless. The complete Cantor algebra is the complete Boolean algebra of Borel subsets of the reals modulo meager sets . It is isomorphic to the completion of the countable Cantor algebra. (The complete Cantor algebra is sometimes called the Cohen algebra, though " Cohen algebra" usually refers to a different type of Boolean algebra.) The complete Cantor algebra was studied by von Neumann in 1935 (later published as ), who showed that it is not isomorphic to the random algebra of Borel subsets modulo measure zero sets. References * *{{Citation , last1=von Neumann , first1=John , autho ...
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Cantor Space
In mathematics, a Cantor space, named for Georg Cantor, is a topological abstraction of the classical Cantor set: a topological space is a Cantor space if it is homeomorphic to the Cantor set. In set theory, the topological space 2ω is called "the" Cantor space. Examples The Cantor set itself is a Cantor space. But the canonical example of a Cantor space is the countably infinite topological product of the discrete 2-point space . This is usually written as 2^\mathbb or 2ω (where 2 denotes the 2-element set with the discrete topology). A point in 2ω is an infinite binary sequence, that is a sequence which assumes only the values 0 or 1. Given such a sequence ''a''0, ''a''1, ''a''2,..., one can map it to the real number :\sum_^\infty \frac. This mapping gives a homeomorphism from 2ω onto the Cantor set, demonstrating that 2ω is indeed a Cantor space. Cantor spaces occur abundantly in real analysis. For example, they exist as subspaces in every perfect, complete metri ...
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Discrete Topology
In topology, a discrete space is a particularly simple example of a topological space or similar structure, one in which the points form a , meaning they are ''isolated'' from each other in a certain sense. The discrete topology is the finest topology that can be given on a set. Every subset is open in the discrete topology so that in particular, every singleton subset is an open set in the discrete topology. Definitions Given a set X: A metric space (E,d) is said to be '' uniformly discrete'' if there exists a ' r > 0 such that, for any x,y \in E, one has either x = y or d(x,y) > r. The topology underlying a metric space can be discrete, without the metric being uniformly discrete: for example the usual metric on the set \left\. Properties The underlying uniformity on a discrete metric space is the discrete uniformity, and the underlying topology on a discrete uniform space is the discrete topology. Thus, the different notions of discrete space are compatible with one ...
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Product Topology
In topology and related areas of mathematics, a product space is the Cartesian product of a family of topological spaces equipped with a natural topology called the product topology. This topology differs from another, perhaps more natural-seeming, topology called the box topology, which can also be given to a product space and which agrees with the product topology when the product is over only finitely many spaces. However, the product topology is "correct" in that it makes the product space a categorical product of its factors, whereas the box topology is too fine; in that sense the product topology is the natural topology on the Cartesian product. Definition Throughout, I will be some non-empty index set and for every index i \in I, let X_i be a topological space. Denote the Cartesian product of the sets X_i by X := \prod X_ := \prod_ X_i and for every index i \in I, denote the i-th by \begin p_i :\;&& \prod_ X_j &&\;\to\; & X_i \\ .3ex && \l ...
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Subset
In mathematics, set ''A'' is a subset of a set ''B'' if all elements of ''A'' are also elements of ''B''; ''B'' is then a superset of ''A''. It is possible for ''A'' and ''B'' to be equal; if they are unequal, then ''A'' is a proper subset of ''B''. The relationship of one set being a subset of another is called inclusion (or sometimes containment). ''A'' is a subset of ''B'' may also be expressed as ''B'' includes (or contains) ''A'' or ''A'' is included (or contained) in ''B''. A ''k''-subset is a subset with ''k'' elements. The subset relation defines a partial order on sets. In fact, the subsets of a given set form a Boolean algebra under the subset relation, in which the join and meet are given by intersection and union, and the subset relation itself is the Boolean inclusion relation. Definition If ''A'' and ''B'' are sets and every element of ''A'' is also an element of ''B'', then: :*''A'' is a subset of ''B'', denoted by A \subseteq B, or equivalently, :* ''B'' ...
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