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Flame Front
A premixed flame is a flame formed under certain conditions during the combustion of a premixed charge (also called pre-mixture) of fuel and oxidiser. Since the fuel and oxidiser—the key chemical reactants of combustion—are available throughout a homogeneous stoichiometric premixed charge, the combustion process once initiated sustains itself by way of its own heat release. The majority of the chemical transformation in such a combustion process occurs primarily in a thin interfacial region which separates the unburned and the burned gases. The premixed flame interface propagates through the mixture until the entire charge is depleted. The propagation speed of a premixed flame is known as the flame speed (or burning velocity) which depends on the convection-diffusion-reaction balance within the flame, i.e. on its inner chemical structure. The premixed flame is characterised as laminar or turbulent depending on the velocity distribution in the unburned pre-mixture (which provid ...
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Bunsen Burner Flame Types
Bunsen may refer to: * Christian Charles Josias Bunsen (1791–1860), Prussian diplomat and scholar * Frances Bunsen (1791–1876), or Baroness Bunsen, Welsh painter and author, wife of Christian Charles Josias Bunsen * Robert Bunsen (1811–1899), German chemist, after whom is named: ** Bunsen burner ** Bunsen cell ** Bunsen crater on the moon ** 10361 Bunsen, an asteroid ** Bunsen Reaction ** The Bunsen–Kirchhoff Award, a German award for spectroscopy * Sir Maurice de Bunsen (1852–1932), British diplomat * Dr. Bunsen Honeydew Dr. Bunsen Honeydew is a Muppet character from ''The Muppet Show'', performed by Dave Goelz. He is a bald, yellow-skinned, bespectacled, lab-coated scientist who presented periodic science segments from "Muppet Labs, where the future is being mad ..., fictional character from the Muppet Show {{surname Low German surnames ...
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Universal Gas Constant
The molar gas constant (also known as the gas constant, universal gas constant, or ideal gas constant) is denoted by the symbol or . It is the molar equivalent to the Boltzmann constant, expressed in units of energy per temperature increment per amount of substance, i.e. the pressure–volume product, rather than energy per temperature increment per ''particle''. The constant is also a combination of the constants from Boyle's law, Charles's law, Avogadro's law, and Gay-Lussac's law. It is a physical constant that is featured in many fundamental equations in the physical sciences, such as the ideal gas law, the Arrhenius equation, and the Nernst equation. The gas constant is the constant of proportionality that relates the energy scale in physics to the temperature scale and the scale used for amount of substance. Thus, the value of the gas constant ultimately derives from historical decisions and accidents in the setting of units of energy, temperature and amount of substanc ...
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Spark-ignition Engine
A spark-ignition engine (SI engine) is an internal combustion engine, generally a petrol engine, where the combustion process of the air-fuel mixture is ignited by a spark from a spark plug. This is in contrast to compression-ignition engines, typically diesel engines, where the heat generated from compression ratio, compression together with the injection of fuel is enough to initiate the combustion process, without needing any external spark. Fuels Spark-ignition engines are commonly referred to as "gasoline engines" in North America, and "petrol engines" in Britain and the rest of the world. Spark-ignition engines can (and increasingly are) run on fuels other than gasoline, petrol/gasoline, such as autogas (Liquefied petroleum gas, LPG), methanol, ethanol, bioethanol, compressed natural gas (CNG), hydrogen, and (in drag racing) nitromethane. Working cycle The working cycle of both spark-ignition and compression-ignition engines may be either two-stroke cycle, two-stroke or fou ...
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Diffusion Flame
In combustion, a diffusion flame is a flame in which the oxidizer and fuel are separated before burning. Contrary to its name, a diffusion flame involves both diffusion and convection processes. The name diffusion flame was first suggested by S.P. Burke and T.E.W. Schumann in 1928, to differentiate from premixed flame where fuel and oxidizer are premixed prior to burning. The diffusion flame is also referred to as nonpremixed flame. The burning rate is however still limited by the rate of diffusion. Diffusion flames tend to burn slower and to produce more soot than premixed flames because there may not be sufficient oxidizer for the reaction to go to completion, although there are some exceptions to the rule. The soot typically produced in a diffusion flame becomes incandescent from the heat of the flame and lends the flame its readily identifiable orange-yellow color. Diffusion flames tend to have a less-localized flame front than premixed flames. The contexts for diffusion may ...
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Flame Holder
A flame holder is a component of a jet engine designed to help maintain continual combustion. In a scramjet engine the residence time of the fuel is very low and complete penetration of the fuel into the flow will not occur. To avoid these conditions flame holders are used. All continuous-combustion jet engines require a flame holder. A flame holder creates a low-speed eddy in the engine to prevent the flame from being blown out. The design of the flame holder is an issue of balance between a stable eddy and drag. The simplest design, often used in amateur projects, is the can-type flame holder, which consists of a can covered in small holes. Much more effective is the H-gutter flame holder, which is shaped like a letter H with a curve facing and opposing the flow of air. Even more effective, however, is the V-gutter flame holder, which is shaped like a V with the point in the direction facing the flow of air. Some studies have suggested that adding a small amount of base bleed ...
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Physical Review A
''Physical Review A'' (also known as PRA) is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the American Physical Society covering atomic, molecular, and optical physics and quantum information. the editor was Jan M. Rost (Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems). History In 1893, the ''Physical Review'' was established at Cornell University. It was taken over by the American Physical Society (formed in 1899) in 1913. In 1970, ''Physical Review'' was subdivided into ''Physical Review A'', ''B'', ''C'', and ''D''. At that time section ''A'' was subtitled ''Physical Review A: General Physics''. In 1990 a process was started to split this journal into two, resulting in the creation of '' Physical Review E'' in 1993. Hence, in 1993, ''Physical Review A'' changed its statement of scope to ''Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics.'' In January 2007, the section of ''Physical Review E'' that published papers on classical optics was merged into ''Physical Rev ...
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G Equation
In Combustion, G equation is a scalar G(\mathbf,t) field equation which describes the instantaneous flame position, introduced by Forman A. Williams in 1985 in the study of premixed turbulent combustion. The equation is derived based on the Level-set method. The equation was studied by George H. Markstein earlier, in a restrictive form. Mathematical descriptionWilliams, Forman A. "Combustion theory." (1985). The G equation reads as :\frac + \mathbf\cdot\nabla G = U_L , \nabla G, where *\mathbf is the flow velocity field *U_L is the local burning velocity The flame location is given by G(\mathbf,t)=G_o which can be defined arbitrarily such that G(\mathbf,t)>G_o is the region of burnt gas and G(\mathbf,t) is the region of unburnt gas. The normal vector to the flame is \mathbf=-\nabla G /, \nabla G, .


Local burning velocity

The burning velocity of the
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Markstein Number
In combustion engineering and explosion studies, the Markstein number characterizes the effect of local heat release of a propagating flame on variations in the surface topology along the flame and the associated local flame front curvature. The dimensionless Markstein number is defined as: :\mathcal = \frac where \mathcal is the Markstein length, and \delta_L is the characteristic laminar flame thickness. The larger the Markstein length, the greater the effect of curvature on localised burning velocity. It is named after George H. Markstein (1911—2011), who showed that thermal diffusion stabilized the curved flame front and proposed a relation between the critical wavelength for stability of the flame front, called the Markstein length, and the thermal thickness of the flame. Phenomenological Markstein numbers with respect to the combustion products are obtained by means of the comparison between the measurements of the flame radii as a function of time and the results of the a ...
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Forman A
Forman may refer to: Places: *Forman, North Dakota, city in Sargent County, North Dakota, United States * Forman, West Virginia, unincorporated community in Grant County, West Virginia, United States * Forman Glacier between Mount Franke and Mount Cole, in the Queen Maud Mountains of Antarctica * Forman Park, in Syracuse, New York Surname: * A. G. Forman CBE (1910–1967), Chief of Naval Staff of the Ghana Navy * Al Forman (1928–2013), baseball umpire * Alexander A. Forman (1843–1922), American soldier in the American Civil War *Alison Forman (born 1969), Australian soccer player *Andrew Forman (1465–1521), Scottish diplomat and Archbishop *Arthur Forman (1850–1905), English schoolmaster and cricketer * Bill Forman (1886–1958), baseball player * Bruce Forman (born 1956), American jazz guitarist *Carol Forman (1918–1997), American actress * Charles William Forman (1821–1894), Presbyterian missionary in Pakistan *Christine Jones Forman, American astrophysicist *Craig Fo ...
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Lewis Number
The Lewis number (Le) is a dimensionless number defined as the ratio of thermal diffusivity to mass diffusivity. It is used to characterize fluid flows where there is simultaneous heat and mass transfer. The Lewis number puts the thickness of the thermal boundary layer in relation to the concentration boundary layer. The Lewis number is defined as :\mathrm = \frac = \frac . where \alpha is the thermal diffusivity and D the mass diffusivity, \lambda the thermal conductivity, \rho the density, D_ the mixture-averaged diffusion coefficient, and c_p the specific heat capacity at constant pressure. In the field of fluid mechanics, many sources define the Lewis number to be the inverse of the above definition. The Lewis number can also be expressed in terms of the Prandtl number and the Schmidt number : :\mathrm = \frac. It is named after Warren K. Lewis (1882–1975), who was the first head of the Chemical Engineering Department at MIT. Some workers in the field of combustion assum ...
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Specific Heat
In thermodynamics, the specific heat capacity (symbol ) of a substance is the heat capacity of a sample of the substance divided by the mass of the sample, also sometimes referred to as massic heat capacity. Informally, it is the amount of heat that must be added to one unit of mass of the substance in order to cause an increase of one unit in temperature. The SI unit of specific heat capacity is joule per kelvin per kilogram, J⋅kg−1⋅K−1. For example, the heat required to raise the temperature of of water by is , so the specific heat capacity of water is . Specific heat capacity often varies with temperature, and is different for each state of matter. Liquid water has one of the highest specific heat capacities among common substances, about at 20 °C; but that of ice, just below 0 °C, is only . The specific heat capacities of iron, granite, and hydrogen gas are about 449 J⋅kg−1⋅K−1, 790 J⋅kg−1⋅K−1, and 14300 J⋅kg−1⋅K� ...
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Thermal Conductivity
The thermal conductivity of a material is a measure of its ability to conduct heat. It is commonly denoted by k, \lambda, or \kappa. Heat transfer occurs at a lower rate in materials of low thermal conductivity than in materials of high thermal conductivity. For instance, metals typically have high thermal conductivity and are very efficient at conducting heat, while the opposite is true for insulating materials like Rockwool or Styrofoam. Correspondingly, materials of high thermal conductivity are widely used in heat sink applications, and materials of low thermal conductivity are used as thermal insulation. The reciprocal of thermal conductivity is called thermal resistivity. The defining equation for thermal conductivity is \mathbf = - k \nabla T, where \mathbf is the heat flux, k is the thermal conductivity, and \nabla T is the temperature gradient. This is known as Fourier's Law for heat conduction. Although commonly expressed as a scalar, the most general form of ...
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