Error Detection
In information theory and coding theory with applications in computer science and telecommunication, error detection and correction (EDAC) or error control are techniques that enable reliable delivery of digital data over unreliable communication channels. Many communication channels are subject to channel noise, and thus errors may be introduced during transmission from the source to a receiver. Error detection techniques allow detecting such errors, while error correction enables reconstruction of the original data in many cases. Definitions ''Error detection'' is the detection of errors caused by noise or other impairments during transmission from the transmitter to the receiver. ''Error correction'' is the detection of errors and reconstruction of the original, errorfree data. History In classical antiquity, copyists of the Hebrew Bible were paid for their work according to the number of stichs (lines of verse). As the prose books of the Bible were hardly ever wr ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Dead Sea Scrolls
The Dead Sea Scrolls (also the Qumran Caves Scrolls) are ancient Jewish and Hebrew religious manuscripts discovered between 1946 and 1956 at the Qumran Caves in what was then Mandatory Palestine, near Ein Feshkha in the West Bank, on the northern shore of the Dead Sea. Dating from the 3rd century BCE to the 1st century CE, the Dead Sea Scrolls are considered to be a keystone in the history of archaeology with great historical, religious, and linguistic significance because they include the oldest surviving manuscripts of entire books later included in the biblical canons, along with deuterocanonical and extrabiblical manuscripts which preserve evidence of the diversity of religious thought in late Second Temple Judaism. At the same time they cast new light on the emergence of Christianity and of Rabbinic Judaism. Most of the scrolls are held by Israel in the Shrine of the Book at the Israel Museum, but their ownership is disputed by Jordan due to the Qumran Caves' ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Burst Error
In telecommunication, a burst error or error burst is a contiguous sequence of symbols, received over a communication channel, such that the first and last symbols are in error and there exists no contiguous subsequence of ''m'' correctly received symbols within the error burst. The integer parameter ''m'' is referred to as the ''guard band'' of the error burst. The last symbol in a burst and the first symbol in the following burst are accordingly separated by ''m'' correct symbols or more. The parameter ''m'' should be specified when describing an error burst. Channel model The Gilbert–Elliott model is a simple channel model introduced by Edgar Gilbert and E. O. Elliott that is widely used for describing burst error patterns in transmission channels and enables simulations of the digital error performance of communications links. It is based on a Markov chain A Markov chain or Markov process is a stochastic model describing a sequence of possible events in which the pr ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Memoryless
In probability and statistics, memorylessness is a property of certain probability distributions. It usually refers to the cases when the distribution of a "waiting time" until a certain event does not depend on how much time has elapsed already. To model memoryless situations accurately, we must constantly 'forget' which state the system is in: the probabilities would not be influenced by the history of the process. Only two kinds of distributions are memoryless: geometric distributions of nonnegative integers and the exponential distributions of nonnegative real numbers. In the context of Markov processes, memorylessness refers to the Markov property, an even stronger assumption which implies that the properties of random variables related to the future depend only on relevant information about the current time, not on information from further in the past. The present article describes the use outside the Markov property. Waiting time examples With memory Most phenomena ar ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Channel Model
A communication channel refers either to a physical transmission medium such as a wire, or to a logical connection over a multiplexed medium such as a radio channel in telecommunications and computer networking. A channel is used for information transfer of, for example, a digital bit stream, from one or several ''senders'' to one or several '' receivers''. A channel has a certain capacity for transmitting information, often measured by its bandwidth in Hz or its data rate in bits per second. Communicating an information signal across distance requires some form of pathway or medium. These pathways, called communication channels, use two types of media: Transmission line (e.g. twistedpair, coaxial, and fiberoptic cable) and broadcast (e.g. microwave, satellite, radio, and infrared). In information theory, a channel refers to a theoretical ''channel model'' with certain error characteristics. In this more general view, a storage device is also a communication ch ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Deterministic Algorithm
In computer science, a deterministic algorithm is an algorithm that, given a particular input, will always produce the same output, with the underlying machine always passing through the same sequence of states. Deterministic algorithms are by far the most studied and familiar kind of algorithm, as well as one of the most practical, since they can be run on real machines efficiently. Formally, a deterministic algorithm computes a mathematical function; a function has a unique value for any input in its domain, and the algorithm is a process that produces this particular value as output. Formal definition Deterministic algorithms can be defined in terms of a state machine: a ''state'' describes what a machine is doing at a particular instant in time. State machines pass in a discrete manner from one state to another. Just after we enter the input, the machine is in its ''initial state'' or ''start state''. If the machine is deterministic, this means that from this point onwards, ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Systematic Code
In coding theory, a systematic code is any errorcorrecting code in which the input data is embedded in the encoded output. Conversely, in a nonsystematic code the output does not contain the input symbols. Systematic codes have the advantage that the parity data can simply be appended to the source block, and receivers do not need to recover the original source symbols if received correctly – this is useful for example if errorcorrection coding is combined with a hash function for quickly determining the correctness of the received source symbols, or in cases where errors occur in erasures and a received symbol is thus always correct. Furthermore, for engineering purposes such as synchronization and monitoring, it is desirable to get reasonable good estimates of the received source symbols without going through the lengthy decoding process which may be carried out at a remote site at a later time. Properties Every nonsystematic linear code can be transformed into a syst ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Redundancy (information Theory)
In information theory, redundancy measures the fractional difference between the entropy of an ensemble , and its maximum possible value \log(, \mathcal_X, ). Informally, it is the amount of wasted "space" used to transmit certain data. Data compression is a way to reduce or eliminate unwanted redundancy, while forward error correction is a way of adding desired redundancy for purposes of error detection and correction when communicating over a noisy channel of limited capacity. Quantitative definition In describing the redundancy of raw data, the rate of a source of information is the average entropy per symbol. For memoryless sources, this is merely the entropy of each symbol, while, in the most general case of a stochastic process, it is :r = \lim_ \frac H(M_1, M_2, \dots M_n), in the limit, as ''n'' goes to infinity, of the joint entropy of the first ''n'' symbols divided by ''n''. It is common in information theory to speak of the "rate" or " entropy" of a lan ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Marcel J
Marcel may refer to: People * Marcel (given name), people with the given name Marcel * Marcel (footballer, born August 1981), Marcel Silva Andrade, Brazilian midfielder * Marcel (footballer, born November 1981), Marcel Augusto Ortolan, Brazilian striker * Marcel (footballer, born 1983), Marcel Silva Cardoso, Brazilian left back * Marcel (footballer, born 1992), Marcel Henrique Garcia Alves Pereira, Brazilian midfielder * Marcel (singer), American country music singer * Étienne Marcel (died 1358), provost of merchants of Paris * Gabriel Marcel (1889–1973), French philosopher, Christian existentialist and playwright * Jean Marcel (died 1980), Madagascan Anglican bishop * JeanJacques Marcel (1931–2014), French football player * Rosie Marcel (born 1977), English actor * Sylvain Marcel (born 1974), Canadian actor * Terry Marcel (born 1942), British film director * Claude Marcel (17931876), French diplomat and applied linguist Other uses * Marcel (''Friends''), a fiction ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Claude Shannon
Claude Elwood Shannon (April 30, 1916 – February 24, 2001) was an American mathematician, electrical engineer, and cryptographer known as a "father of information theory". As a 21yearold master's degree student at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), he wrote his thesis demonstrating that electrical applications of Boolean algebra could construct any logical numerical relationship. Shannon contributed to the field of cryptanalysis for national defense of the United States during World War II, including his fundamental work on codebreaking and secure telecommunications. Biography Childhood The Shannon family lived in Gaylord, Michigan, and Claude was born in a hospital in nearby Petoskey. His father, Claude Sr. (1862–1934), was a businessman and for a while, a judge of probate in Gaylord. His mother, Mabel Wolf Shannon (1890–1945), was a language teacher, who also served as the principal of Gaylord High School. Claude Sr. was a descendant of Ne ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Hamming Code
In computer science and telecommunication, Hamming codes are a family of linear errorcorrecting codes. Hamming codes can detect onebit and twobit errors, or correct onebit errors without detection of uncorrected errors. By contrast, the simple parity code cannot correct errors, and can detect only an odd number of bits in error. Hamming codes are perfect codes, that is, they achieve the highest possible rate for codes with their block length and minimum distance of three. Richard W. Hamming invented Hamming codes in 1950 as a way of automatically correcting errors introduced by punched card readers. In his original paper, Hamming elaborated his general idea, but specifically focused on the Hamming(7,4) code which adds three parity bits to four bits of data. In mathematical terms, Hamming codes are a class of binary linear code. For each integer there is a codeword with block length and message length . Hence the rate of Hamming codes is , which is the highest p ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Richard Hamming
Richard Wesley Hamming (February 11, 1915 – January 7, 1998) was an American mathematician whose work had many implications for computer engineering and telecommunications. His contributions include the Hamming code (which makes use of a Hamming matrix), the Hamming window, Hamming numbers, spherepacking (or Hamming bound), Hamming graph concepts, and the Hamming distance. Born in Chicago, Hamming attended University of Chicago, University of Nebraska and the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, where he wrote his doctoral thesis in mathematics under the supervision of Waldemar Trjitzinsky (1901–1973). In April 1945 he joined the Manhattan Project at the Los Alamos Laboratory, where he programmed the IBM calculating machines that computed the solution to equations provided by the project's physicists. He left to join the Bell Telephone Laboratories in 1946. Over the next fifteen years he was involved in nearly all of the Laboratories' most prominent ach ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 