Errorcorrecting Code
In computing, telecommunication, information theory, and coding theory, an error correction code, sometimes error correcting code, (ECC) is used for controlling errors in data over unreliable or noisy communication channels. The central idea is the sender encodes the message with redundant information in the form of an ECC. The redundancy allows the receiver to detect a limited number of errors that may occur anywhere in the message, and often to correct these errors without retransmission. The American mathematician Richard Hamming pioneered this field in the 1940s and invented the first errorcorrecting code in 1950: the Hamming (7,4) code. ECC contrasts with error detection in that errors that are encountered can be corrected, not simply detected. The advantage is that a system using ECC does not require a reverse channel to request retransmission of data when an error occurs. The downside is that there is a fixed overhead that is added to the message, thereby requiring a ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Computing
Computing is any goaloriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithmic processes, and development of both hardware and software. Computing has scientific, engineering, mathematical, technological and social aspects. Major computing disciplines include computer engineering, computer science, cybersecurity, data science, information systems, information technology and software engineering. The term "computing" is also synonymous with counting and calculating. In earlier times, it was used in reference to the action performed by mechanical computing machines, and before that, to human computers. History The history of computing is longer than the history of computing hardware and includes the history of methods intended for pen and paper (or for chalk and slate) with or without the aid of tables. Computing is intimately tied to the representation of numbers, though mathematical ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Modem
A modulatordemodulator or modem is a computer hardware device that converts data from a digital format into a format suitable for an analog transmission medium such as telephone or radio. A modem transmits data by Modulation#Digital modulation methods, modulating one or more carrier wave signals to encode digital information, while the receiver Demodulation, demodulates the signal to recreate the original digital information. The goal is to produce a Signal (electronics), signal that can be transmitted easily and decoded reliably. Modems can be used with almost any means of transmitting analog signals, from lightemitting diodes to radio. Early modems were devices that used audible sounds suitable for transmission over traditional telephone systems and leased lines. These generally operated at 110 or 300 bits per second (bit/s), and the connection between devices was normally manual, using an attached telephone handset. By the 1970s, higher speeds of 1,200 and 2,400 ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Repetition Code
In coding theory, the repetition code is one of the most basic errorcorrecting codes. In order to transmit a message over a noisy channel that may corrupt the transmission in a few places, the idea of the repetition code is to just repeat the message several times. The hope is that the channel corrupts only a minority of these repetitions. This way the receiver will notice that a transmission error occurred since the received data stream is not the repetition of a single message, and moreover, the receiver can recover the original message by looking at the received message in the data stream that occurs most often. Because of the bad error correcting performance coupled with the low code rate (ratio between useful information symbols and actual transmitted symbols), other error correction codes are preferred in most cases. The chief attraction of the repetition code is the ease of implementation. Code parameters In the case of a binary repetition code, there exist two code wor ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Systematic Code
In coding theory, a systematic code is any errorcorrecting code in which the input data is embedded in the encoded output. Conversely, in a nonsystematic code the output does not contain the input symbols. Systematic codes have the advantage that the parity data can simply be appended to the source block, and receivers do not need to recover the original source symbols if received correctly – this is useful for example if errorcorrection coding is combined with a hash function for quickly determining the correctness of the received source symbols, or in cases where errors occur in erasures and a received symbol is thus always correct. Furthermore, for engineering purposes such as synchronization and monitoring, it is desirable to get reasonable good estimates of the received source symbols without going through the lengthy decoding process which may be carried out at a remote site at a later time. Properties Every nonsystematic linear code can be transformed into a syst ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Redundancy (information Theory)
In information theory, redundancy measures the fractional difference between the entropy of an ensemble , and its maximum possible value \log(, \mathcal_X, ). Informally, it is the amount of wasted "space" used to transmit certain data. Data compression is a way to reduce or eliminate unwanted redundancy, while forward error correction is a way of adding desired redundancy for purposes of error detection and correction when communicating over a noisy channel of limited capacity. Quantitative definition In describing the redundancy of raw data, the rate of a source of information is the average entropy per symbol. For memoryless sources, this is merely the entropy of each symbol, while, in the most general case of a stochastic process, it is :r = \lim_ \frac H(M_1, M_2, \dots M_n), in the limit, as ''n'' goes to infinity, of the joint entropy of the first ''n'' symbols divided by ''n''. It is common in information theory to speak of the "rate" or "entropy" of a language ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Softdecision Decoder
In information theory, a softdecision decoder is a kind of decoding methods – a class of algorithm used to decode data that has been encoded with an error correcting code. Whereas a harddecision decoder operates on data that take on a fixed set of possible values (typically 0 or 1 in a binary code), the inputs to a softdecision decoder may take on a whole range of values inbetween. This extra information indicates the reliability of each input data point, and is used to form better estimates of the original data. Therefore, a softdecision decoder will typically perform better in the presence of corrupted data than its harddecision counterpart. Softdecision decoders are often used in Viterbi decoders and turbo code In information theory, turbo codes (originally in French ''Turbocodes'') are a class of highperformance forward error correction (FEC) codes developed around 1990–91, but first published in 1993. They were the first practical codes to closel ... decod ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Data Transmission
Data transmission and data reception or, more broadly, data communication or digital communications is the transfer and reception of data in the form of a digital bitstream or a digitized analog signal transmitted over a pointtopoint or pointtomultipoint communication channel. Examples of such channels are copper wires, optical fibers, wireless communication using radio spectrum, storage media and computer buses. The data are represented as an electromagnetic signal, such as an electrical voltage, radiowave, microwave, or infrared signal. Analog transmission is a method of conveying voice, data, image, signal or video information using a continuous signal which varies in amplitude, phase, or some other property in proportion to that of a variable. The messages are either represented by a sequence of pulses by means of a line code (''baseband transmission''), or by a limited set of continuously varying waveforms (''passband transmission''), using a digital modulat ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Polar Code (coding Theory)
In information theory, a polar code is a linear block code, linear block errorcorrecting code. The code construction is based on a multiple recursive concatenation of a short kernel code which transforms the physical channel into virtual outer channels. When the number of recursions becomes large, the virtual channels tend to either have high reliability or low reliability (in other words, they polarize or become sparse), and the data bits are allocated to the most reliable channels. It is the first code with an explicit construction to provably achieve the Noisychannel coding theorem, channel capacity for symmetric binaryinput, discrete, memorylessness, memoryless channels (BDMC) with polynomial dependence on the gap to capacity. Notably, polar codes have modest encoding and decoding complexity , which renders them attractive for many applications. Moreover, the encoding and decoding energy complexity of generalized polar codes can reach the fundamental lower bounds for energy c ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Claude Shannon
Claude Elwood Shannon (April 30, 1916 – February 24, 2001) was an American mathematician, electrical engineer, and cryptographer known as a "father of information theory". As a 21yearold master's degree student at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), he wrote his thesis demonstrating that electrical applications of Boolean algebra could construct any logical numerical relationship. Shannon contributed to the field of cryptanalysis for national defense of the United States during World War II, including his fundamental work on codebreaking and secure telecommunications. Biography Childhood The Shannon family lived in Gaylord, Michigan, and Claude was born in a hospital in nearby Petoskey. His father, Claude Sr. (1862–1934), was a businessman and for a while, a judge of probate in Gaylord. His mother, Mabel Wolf Shannon (1890–1945), was a language teacher, who also served as the principal of Gaylord High School. Claude Sr. was a descendant of New Jer ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Noisychannel Coding Theorem
In information theory, the noisychannel coding theorem (sometimes Shannon's theorem or Shannon's limit), establishes that for any given degree of noise contamination of a communication channel, it is possible to communicate discrete data (digital information) nearly errorfree up to a computable maximum rate through the channel. This result was presented by Claude Shannon in 1948 and was based in part on earlier work and ideas of Harry Nyquist and Ralph Hartley. The Shannon limit or Shannon capacity of a communication channel refers to the maximum rate of errorfree data that can theoretically be transferred over the channel if the link is subject to random data transmission errors, for a particular noise level. It was first described by Shannon (1948), and shortly after published in a book by Shannon and Warren Weaver entitled '' The Mathematical Theory of Communication'' (1949). This founded the modern discipline of information theory. Overview Stated by Claude Shann ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Biterror Rate
In digital transmission, the number of bit errors is the number of received bits of a data stream over a communication channel that have been altered due to noise, interference, distortion or bit synchronization errors. The bit error rate (BER) is the number of bit errors per unit time. The bit error ratio (also BER) is the number of bit errors divided by the total number of transferred bits during a studied time interval. Bit error ratio is a unitless performance measure, often expressed as a percentage. The bit error probability ''pe'' is the expected value of the bit error ratio. The bit error ratio can be considered as an approximate estimate of the bit error probability. This estimate is accurate for a long time interval and a high number of bit errors. Example As an example, assume this transmitted bit sequence: 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 and the following received bit sequence: 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1, The number of bit errors (the underlined bits) is, in this case, 3. The BER is ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Error Correction Code
In computing, telecommunication, information theory, and coding theory, an error correction code, sometimes error correcting code, (ECC) is used for controlling errors in data over unreliable or noisy communication channels. The central idea is the sender encodes the message with redundant information in the form of an ECC. The redundancy allows the receiver to detect a limited number of errors that may occur anywhere in the message, and often to correct these errors without retransmission. The American mathematician Richard Hamming pioneered this field in the 1940s and invented the first errorcorrecting code in 1950: the Hamming (7,4) code. ECC contrasts with error detection in that errors that are encountered can be corrected, not simply detected. The advantage is that a system using ECC does not require a reverse channel to request retransmission of data when an error occurs. The downside is that there is a fixed overhead that is added to the message, thereby requiring a ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 