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 Embedding In mathematics, an embedding (or imbedding) is one instance of some mathematical structure contained within another instance, such as a group that is a subgroup. When some object X is said to be embedded in another object Y, the embedding is given by some injective and structure-preserving map f:X\rightarrow Y. The precise meaning of "structure-preserving" depends on the kind of mathematical structure of which X and Y are instances. In the terminology of category theory, a structure-preserving map is called a morphism. The fact that a map f:X\rightarrow Y is an embedding is often indicated by the use of a "hooked arrow" (); thus: f : X \hookrightarrow Y. (On the other hand, this notation is sometimes reserved for inclusion maps.) Given X and Y, several different embeddings of X in Y may be possible. In many cases of interest there is a standard (or "canonical") embedding, like those of the natural numbers in the integers, the integers in the rational numbers, the rational nu ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Immersion (mathematics) In mathematics, an immersion is a differentiable function between differentiable manifolds whose differential (or pushforward) is everywhere injective. Explicitly, is an immersion if :D_pf : T_p M \to T_N\, is an injective function at every point ''p'' of ''M'' (where ''TpX'' denotes the tangent space of a manifold ''X'' at a point ''p'' in ''X''). Equivalently, ''f'' is an immersion if its derivative has constant rank equal to the dimension of ''M'': :\operatorname\,D_p f = \dim M. The function ''f'' itself need not be injective, only its derivative must be. A related concept is that of an embedding. A smooth embedding is an injective immersion that is also a topological embedding, so that ''M'' is diffeomorphic to its image in ''N''. An immersion is precisely a local embedding – that is, for any point there is a neighbourhood, , of ''x'' such that is an embedding, and conversely a local embedding is an immersion. For infinite dimensional manifolds, this is som ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Metric Space In mathematics, a metric space is a set together with a notion of ''distance'' between its elements, usually called points. The distance is measured by a function called a metric or distance function. Metric spaces are the most general setting for studying many of the concepts of mathematical analysis and geometry. The most familiar example of a metric space is 3-dimensional Euclidean space with its usual notion of distance. Other well-known examples are a sphere equipped with the angular distance and the hyperbolic plane. A metric may correspond to a metaphorical, rather than physical, notion of distance: for example, the set of 100-character Unicode strings can be equipped with the Hamming distance, which measures the number of characters that need to be changed to get from one string to another. Since they are very general, metric spaces are a tool used in many different branches of mathematics. Many types of mathematical objects have a natural notion of distance and ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Inclusion Map In mathematics, if A is a subset of B, then the inclusion map (also inclusion function, insertion, or canonical injection) is the function \iota that sends each element x of A to x, treated as an element of B: \iota : A\rightarrow B, \qquad \iota(x)=x. A "hooked arrow" () is sometimes used in place of the function arrow above to denote an inclusion map; thus: \iota: A\hookrightarrow B. (However, some authors use this hooked arrow for any embedding.) This and other analogous injective functions from substructures are sometimes called natural injections. Given any morphism f between objects X and Y, if there is an inclusion map into the domain \iota : A \to X, then one can form the restriction f \, \iota of f. In many instances, one can also construct a canonical inclusion into the codomain R \to Y known as the range of f. Applications of inclusion maps Inclusion maps tend to be homomorphisms of algebraic structures; thus, such inclusion maps are embeddings. More precis ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Local Diffeomorphism In mathematics, more specifically differential topology, a local diffeomorphism is intuitively a map between Smooth manifolds that preserves the local differentiable structure. The formal definition of a local diffeomorphism is given below. Formal definition Let X and Y be differentiable manifolds. A function f : X \to Y is a local diffeomorphism, if for each point x \in X there exists an open set U containing x, such that f(U) is open in Y and f\vert_U : U \to f(U) is a diffeomorphism. A local diffeomorphism is a special case of an immersion f : X \to Y, where the image f(U) of U under f locally has the differentiable structure of a submanifold of Y. Then f(U) and X may have a lower dimension than Y. Characterizations A map is a local diffeomorphism if and only if it is a smooth immersion (smooth local embedding) and an open map. The inverse function theorem implies that a smooth map f : M \to N is a local diffeomorphism if and only if the derivative D f_p : T_ ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Integer An integer is the number zero (), a positive natural number (, , , etc.) or a negative integer with a minus sign ( −1, −2, −3, etc.). The negative numbers are the additive inverses of the corresponding positive numbers. In the language of mathematics, the set of integers is often denoted by the boldface or blackboard bold \mathbb. The set of natural numbers \mathbb is a subset of \mathbb, which in turn is a subset of the set of all rational numbers \mathbb, itself a subset of the real numbers \mathbb. Like the natural numbers, \mathbb is countably infinite. An integer may be regarded as a real number that can be written without a fractional component. For example, 21, 4, 0, and −2048 are integers, while 9.75, , and  are not. The integers form the smallest group and the smallest ring containing the natural numbers. In algebraic number theory, the integers are sometimes qualified as rational integers to distinguish them from the more general algebraic in ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Open Map In mathematics, more specifically in topology, an open map is a function between two topological spaces that maps open sets to open sets. That is, a function f : X \to Y is open if for any open set U in X, the image f(U) is open in Y. Likewise, a closed map is a function that maps closed sets to closed sets. A map may be open, closed, both, or neither; in particular, an open map need not be closed and vice versa. Open and closed maps are not necessarily continuous. Further, continuity is independent of openness and closedness in the general case and a continuous function may have one, both, or neither property; this fact remains true even if one restricts oneself to metric spaces. Although their definitions seem more natural, open and closed maps are much less important than continuous maps. Recall that, by definition, a function f : X \to Y is continuous if the preimage of every open set of Y is open in X. (Equivalently, if the preimage of every closed set of Y is closed in X ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Closed Map In mathematics, more specifically in topology, an open map is a function between two topological spaces that maps open sets to open sets. That is, a function f : X \to Y is open if for any open set U in X, the image f(U) is open in Y. Likewise, a closed map is a function that maps closed sets to closed sets. A map may be open, closed, both, or neither; in particular, an open map need not be closed and vice versa. Open and closed maps are not necessarily continuous. Further, continuity is independent of openness and closedness in the general case and a continuous function may have one, both, or neither property; this fact remains true even if one restricts oneself to metric spaces. Although their definitions seem more natural, open and closed maps are much less important than continuous maps. Recall that, by definition, a function f : X \to Y is continuous if the preimage of every open set of Y is open in X. (Equivalently, if the preimage of every closed set of Y is closed in X ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Real Number In mathematics, a real number is a number that can be used to measure a ''continuous'' one- dimensional quantity such as a distance, duration or temperature. Here, ''continuous'' means that values can have arbitrarily small variations. Every real number can be almost uniquely represented by an infinite decimal expansion. The real numbers are fundamental in calculus (and more generally in all mathematics), in particular by their role in the classical definitions of limits, continuity and derivatives. The set of real numbers is denoted or \mathbb and is sometimes called "the reals". The adjective ''real'' in this context was introduced in the 17th century by René Descartes to distinguish real numbers, associated with physical reality, from imaginary numbers (such as the square roots of ), which seemed like a theoretical contrivance unrelated to physical reality. The real numbers include the rational numbers, such as the integer and the fraction . The rest of the ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Subspace Topology In topology and related areas of mathematics, a subspace of a topological space ''X'' is a subset ''S'' of ''X'' which is equipped with a topology induced from that of ''X'' called the subspace topology (or the relative topology, or the induced topology, or the trace topology). Definition Given a topological space (X, \tau) and a subset S of X, the subspace topology on S is defined by :\tau_S = \lbrace S \cap U \mid U \in \tau \rbrace. That is, a subset of S is open in the subspace topology if and only if it is the intersection of S with an open set in (X, \tau). If S is equipped with the subspace topology then it is a topological space in its own right, and is called a subspace of (X, \tau). Subsets of topological spaces are usually assumed to be equipped with the subspace topology unless otherwise stated. Alternatively we can define the subspace topology for a subset S of X as the coarsest topology for which the inclusion map :\iota: S \hookrightarrow X is continuous. ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Morphism In mathematics, particularly in category theory, a morphism is a structure-preserving map from one mathematical structure to another one of the same type. The notion of morphism recurs in much of contemporary mathematics. In set theory, morphisms are functions; in linear algebra, linear transformations; in group theory, group homomorphisms; in topology, continuous functions, and so on. In category theory, ''morphism'' is a broadly similar idea: the mathematical objects involved need not be sets, and the relationships between them may be something other than maps, although the morphisms between the objects of a given category have to behave similarly to maps in that they have to admit an associative operation similar to function composition. A morphism in category theory is an abstraction of a homomorphism. The study of morphisms and of the structures (called "objects") over which they are defined is central to category theory. Much of the terminology of morphisms, as well ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Injective Function In mathematics, an injective function (also known as injection, or one-to-one function) is a function that maps distinct elements of its domain to distinct elements; that is, implies . (Equivalently, implies in the equivalent contrapositive statement.) In other words, every element of the function's codomain is the image of one element of its domain. The term must not be confused with that refers to bijective functions, which are functions such that each element in the codomain is an image of exactly one element in the domain. A homomorphism between algebraic structures is a function that is compatible with the operations of the structures. For all common algebraic structures, and, in particular for vector spaces, an is also called a . However, in the more general context of category theory, the definition of a monomorphism differs from that of an injective homomorphism. This is thus a theorem that they are equivalent for algebraic structures; see for more detail ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Local Homeomorphism In mathematics, more specifically topology, a local homeomorphism is a function between topological spaces that, intuitively, preserves local (though not necessarily global) structure. If f : X \to Y is a local homeomorphism, X is said to be an étale space over Y. Local homeomorphisms are used in the study of sheaves. Typical examples of local homeomorphisms are covering maps. A topological space X is locally homeomorphic to Y if every point of X has a neighborhood that is homeomorphic to an open subset of Y. For example, a manifold of dimension n is locally homeomorphic to \R^n. If there is a local homeomorphism from X to Y, then X is locally homeomorphic to Y, but the converse is not always true. For example, the two dimensional sphere, being a manifold, is locally homeomorphic to the plane \R^2, but there is no local homeomorphism S^2 \to \R^2. Formal definition A function f : X \to Y between two topological spaces is called a if for every point x \in X there exists an ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu]