Elementary Topos
In mathematics, a topos (, ; plural topoi or , or toposes) is a category that behaves like the category of sheaves of sets on a topological space (or more generally: on a site). Topoi behave much like the category of sets and possess a notion of localization; they are a direct generalization of pointset topology. The Grothendieck topoi find applications in algebraic geometry; the more general elementary topoi are used in logic. The mathematical field that studies topoi is called topos theory. Grothendieck topos (topos in geometry) Since the introduction of sheaves into mathematics in the 1940s, a major theme has been to study a space by studying sheaves on a space. This idea was expounded by Alexander Grothendieck by introducing the notion of a "topos". The main utility of this notion is in the abundance of situations in mathematics where topological heuristics are very effective, but an honest topological space is lacking; it is sometimes possible to find a topos formal ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Mathematics
Mathematics is an area of knowledge that includes the topics of numbers, formulas and related structures, shapes and the spaces in which they are contained, and quantities and their changes. These topics are represented in modern mathematics with the major subdisciplines of number theory, algebra, geometry, and analysis, respectively. There is no general consensus among mathematicians about a common definition for their academic discipline. Most mathematical activity involves the discovery of properties of abstract objects and the use of pure reason to prove them. These objects consist of either abstractions from nature orin modern mathematicsentities that are stipulated to have certain properties, called axioms. A ''proof'' consists of a succession of applications of deductive rules to already established results. These results include previously proved theorems, axioms, andin case of abstraction from naturesome basic properties that are considered true starting points of t ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Left Adjoint
In mathematics, specifically category theory, adjunction is a relationship that two functors may exhibit, intuitively corresponding to a weak form of equivalence between two related categories. Two functors that stand in this relationship are known as adjoint functors, one being the left adjoint and the other the right adjoint. Pairs of adjoint functors are ubiquitous in mathematics and often arise from constructions of "optimal solutions" to certain problems (i.e., constructions of objects having a certain universal property), such as the construction of a free group on a set in algebra, or the construction of the Stone–Čech compactification of a topological space in topology. By definition, an adjunction between categories \mathcal and \mathcal is a pair of functors (assumed to be Covariant functor, covariant) :F: \mathcal \rightarrow \mathcal and G: \mathcal \rightarrow \mathcal and, for all objects X in \mathcal and Y in \mathcal a bijection between the res ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Scheme (mathematics)
In mathematics, a scheme is a mathematical structure that enlarges the notion of algebraic variety in several ways, such as taking account of multiplicities (the equations ''x'' = 0 and ''x''2 = 0 define the same algebraic variety but different schemes) and allowing "varieties" defined over any commutative ring (for example, Fermat curves are defined over the integers). Scheme theory was introduced by Alexander Grothendieck in 1960 in his treatise "Éléments de géométrie algébrique"; one of its aims was developing the formalism needed to solve deep problems of algebraic geometry, such as the Weil conjectures (the last of which was proved by Pierre Deligne). Strongly based on commutative algebra, scheme theory allows a systematic use of methods of topology and homological algebra. Scheme theory also unifies algebraic geometry with much of number theory, which eventually led to Wiles's proof of Fermat's Last Theorem. Formally, a scheme is a topological space together with ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Groupoid
In mathematics, especially in category theory and homotopy theory, a groupoid (less often Brandt groupoid or virtual group) generalises the notion of group in several equivalent ways. A groupoid can be seen as a: *'' Group'' with a partial function replacing the binary operation; *''Category'' in which every morphism is invertible. A category of this sort can be viewed as augmented with a unary operation on the morphisms, called ''inverse'' by analogy with group theory. A groupoid where there is only one object is a usual group. In the presence of dependent typing, a category in general can be viewed as a typed monoid, and similarly, a groupoid can be viewed as simply a typed group. The morphisms take one from one object to another, and form a dependent family of types, thus morphisms might be typed g:A \rightarrow B, h:B \rightarrow C, say. Composition is then a total function: \circ : (B \rightarrow C) \rightarrow (A \rightarrow B) \rightarrow A \rightarrow C , so that h \ci ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Group (mathematics)
In mathematics, a group is a set and an operation that combines any two elements of the set to produce a third element of the set, in such a way that the operation is associative, an identity element exists and every element has an inverse. These three axioms hold for number systems and many other mathematical structures. For example, the integers together with the addition operation form a group. The concept of a group and the axioms that define it were elaborated for handling, in a unified way, essential structural properties of very different mathematical entities such as numbers, geometric shapes and polynomial roots. Because the concept of groups is ubiquitous in numerous areas both within and outside mathematics, some authors consider it as a central organizing principle of contemporary mathematics. In geometry groups arise naturally in the study of symmetries and geometric transformations: The symmetries of an object form a group, called the symmetry group of th ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Coequalizer
In category theory, a coequalizer (or coequaliser) is a generalization of a quotient by an equivalence relation to objects in an arbitrary category. It is the categorical construction dual to the equalizer. Definition A coequalizer is a colimit of the diagram consisting of two objects ''X'' and ''Y'' and two parallel morphisms ''f'', ''g'' : ''X'' → ''Y''. More explicitly, a coequalizer can be defined as an object ''Q'' together with a morphism ''q'' : ''Y'' → ''Q'' such that ''q'' ∘ ''f'' = ''q'' ∘ ''g''. Moreover, the pair (''Q'', ''q'') must be universal in the sense that given any other such pair (''Q''′, ''q''′) there exists a unique morphism ''u'' : ''Q'' → ''Q''′ such that ''u'' ∘ ''q'' = ''q''′. This information can be captured by the following commutative diagram: As with all universal constructions, a coequalizer, if it exists, is unique up to a unique isomorphism (this is why, by abuse of language, one sometimes speaks of " ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Regular Category
In category theory, a regular category is a category with finite limits and coequalizers of a pair of morphisms called kernel pairs, satisfying certain ''exactness'' conditions. In that way, regular categories recapture many properties of abelian categories, like the existence of ''images'', without requiring additivity. At the same time, regular categories provide a foundation for the study of a fragment of firstorder logic, known as regular logic. Definition A category ''C'' is called regular if it satisfies the following three properties: * ''C'' is finitely complete. * If ''f'' : ''X'' → ''Y'' is a morphism in ''C'', and : is a pullback, then the coequalizer of ''p''0, ''p''1 exists. The pair (''p''0, ''p''1) is called the kernel pair of ''f''. Being a pullback, the kernel pair is unique up to a unique isomorphism. * If ''f'' : ''X'' → ''Y'' is a morphism in ''C'', and : is a pullback, and if ''f'' is a re ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Equivalence Relation
In mathematics, an equivalence relation is a binary relation that is reflexive, symmetric and transitive. The equipollence relation between line segments in geometry is a common example of an equivalence relation. Each equivalence relation provides a partition of the underlying set into disjoint equivalence classes. Two elements of the given set are equivalent to each other if and only if they belong to the same equivalence class. Notation Various notations are used in the literature to denote that two elements a and b of a set are equivalent with respect to an equivalence relation R; the most common are "a \sim b" and "", which are used when R is implicit, and variations of "a \sim_R b", "", or "" to specify R explicitly. Nonequivalence may be written "" or "a \not\equiv b". Definition A binary relation \,\sim\, on a set X is said to be an equivalence relation, if and only if it is reflexive, symmetric and transitive. That is, for all a, b, and c in X: * a \sim a ( ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Initial And Terminal Objects
In category theory, a branch of mathematics, an initial object of a category is an object in such that for every object in , there exists precisely one morphism . The dual notion is that of a terminal object (also called terminal element): is terminal if for every object in there exists exactly one morphism . Initial objects are also called coterminal or universal, and terminal objects are also called final. If an object is both initial and terminal, it is called a zero object or null object. A pointed category is one with a zero object. A strict initial object is one for which every morphism into is an isomorphism. Examples * The empty set is the unique initial object in Set, the category of sets. Every oneelement set ( singleton) is a terminal object in this category; there are no zero objects. Similarly, the empty space is the unique initial object in Top, the category of topological spaces and every onepoint space is a terminal object in this category. * ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Fiber Product
In category theory, a branch of mathematics, a pullback (also called a fiber product, fibre product, fibered product or Cartesian square) is the limit of a diagram consisting of two morphisms and with a common codomain. The pullback is often written : and comes equipped with two natural morphisms and . The pullback of two morphisms and need not exist, but if it does, it is essentially uniquely defined by the two morphisms. In many situations, may intuitively be thought of as consisting of pairs of elements with in , in , and . For the general definition, a universal property is used, which essentially expresses the fact that the pullback is the "most general" way to complete the two given morphisms to a commutative square. The dual concept of the pullback is the '' pushout''. Universal property Explicitly, a pullback of the morphisms and consists of an object and two morphisms and for which the diagram : commutes. Moreover, the pullback must be universal wi ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Colimit
In category theory, a branch of mathematics, the abstract notion of a limit captures the essential properties of universal constructions such as products, pullbacks and inverse limits. The dual notion of a colimit generalizes constructions such as disjoint unions, direct sums, coproducts, pushouts and direct limits. Limits and colimits, like the strongly related notions of universal properties and adjoint functors, exist at a high level of abstraction. In order to understand them, it is helpful to first study the specific examples these concepts are meant to generalize. Definition Limits and colimits in a category C are defined by means of diagrams in C. Formally, a diagram of shape J in C is a functor from J to C: :F:J\to C. The category J is thought of as an index category, and the diagram F is thought of as indexing a collection of objects and morphisms in C patterned on J. One is most often interested in the case where the category J is a small or even finite category ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Generator (category Theory)
In mathematics, specifically category theory, a family of generators (or family of separators) of a category \mathcal C is a collection \mathcal G \subseteq Ob(\mathcal C) of objects in \mathcal C, such that for any two ''distinct'' morphisms f, g: X \to Y in \mathcal, that is with f \neq g, there is some G in \mathcal G and some morphism h : G \to X such that f \circ h \neq g \circ h. If the collection consists of a single object G, we say it is a generator (or separator). Generators are central to the definition of Grothendieck categories. The dual concept is called a cogenerator or coseparator. Examples * In the category of abelian groups, the group of integers \mathbf Z is a generator: If ''f'' and ''g'' are different, then there is an element x \in X, such that f(x) \neq g(x). Hence the map \mathbf Z \rightarrow X, n \mapsto n \cdot x suffices. * Similarly, the onepoint set is a generator for the category of sets. In fact, any nonempty set is a generator. * In the cate ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 