Division Ring
In algebra, a division ring, also called a skew field, is a nontrivial ring in which division by nonzero elements is defined. Specifically, it is a nontrivial ring in which every nonzero element has a multiplicative inverse, that is, an element usually denoted , such that . So, (right) ''division'' may be defined as , but this notation is avoided, as one may have . A commutative division ring is a field. Wedderburn's little theorem asserts that all finite division rings are commutative and therefore finite fields. Historically, division rings were sometimes referred to as fields, while fields were called "commutative fields". In some languages, such as French, the word equivalent to "field" ("corps") is used for both commutative and noncommutative cases, and the distinction between the two cases is made by adding qualificatives such as "corps commutatif" (commutative field) or "corps gauche" (skew field). All division rings are simple. That is, they have no twosided ideal b ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Algebra
Algebra () is one of the broad areas of mathematics. Roughly speaking, algebra is the study of mathematical symbols and the rules for manipulating these symbols in formulas; it is a unifying thread of almost all of mathematics. Elementary algebra deals with the manipulation of variables (commonly represented by Roman letters) as if they were numbers and is therefore essential in all applications of mathematics. Abstract algebra is the name given, mostly in education, to the study of algebraic structures such as groups, rings, and fields (the term is no more in common use outside educational context). Linear algebra, which deals with linear equations and linear mappings, is used for modern presentations of geometry, and has many practical applications (in weather forecasting, for example). There are many areas of mathematics that belong to algebra, some having "algebra" in their name, such as commutative algebra, and some not, such as Galois theory. The word ''algebr ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Simple Module
In mathematics, specifically in ring theory, the simple modules over a ring ''R'' are the (left or right) modules over ''R'' that are nonzero and have no nonzero proper submodules. Equivalently, a module ''M'' is simple if and only if every cyclic submodule generated by a element of ''M'' equals ''M''. Simple modules form building blocks for the modules of finite length, and they are analogous to the simple groups in group theory. In this article, all modules will be assumed to be right unital modules over a ring ''R''. Examples Zmodules are the same as abelian groups, so a simple Zmodule is an abelian group which has no nonzero proper subgroups. These are the cyclic groups of prime order. If ''I'' is a right ideal of ''R'', then ''I'' is simple as a right module if and only if ''I'' is a minimal nonzero right ideal: If ''M'' is a nonzero proper submodule of ''I'', then it is also a right ideal, so ''I'' is not minimal. Conversely, if ''I'' is not minimal, then ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Division Algebra
In the field of mathematics called abstract algebra, a division algebra is, roughly speaking, an algebra over a field in which division, except by zero, is always possible. Definitions Formally, we start with a nonzero algebra ''D'' over a field. We call ''D'' a division algebra if for any element ''a'' in ''D'' and any nonzero element ''b'' in ''D'' there exists precisely one element ''x'' in ''D'' with ''a'' = ''bx'' and precisely one element ''y'' in ''D'' such that . For associative algebras, the definition can be simplified as follows: a nonzero associative algebra over a field is a division algebra if and only if it has a multiplicative identity element 1 and every nonzero element ''a'' has a multiplicative inverse (i.e. an element ''x'' with ). Associative division algebras The bestknown examples of associative division algebras are the finitedimensional real ones (that is, algebras over the field R of real numbers, which are finite dimensional as a vector spa ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Center Of A Ring
In algebra, the center of a ring ''R'' is the subring consisting of the elements ''x'' such that ''xy = yx'' for all elements ''y'' in ''R''. It is a commutative ring and is denoted as Z(R); "Z" stands for the German word ''Zentrum'', meaning "center". If ''R'' is a ring, then ''R'' is an associative algebra over its center. Conversely, if ''R'' is an associative algebra over a commutative subring ''S'', then ''S'' is a subring of the center of ''R'', and if ''S'' happens to be the center of ''R'', then the algebra ''R'' is called a central algebra. Examples *The center of a commutative ring ''R'' is ''R'' itself. *The center of a skewfield is a field. *The center of the (full) matrix ring with entries in a commutative ring ''R'' consists of ''R''scalar multiples of the identity matrix. *Let ''F'' be a field extension of a field ''k'', and ''R'' an algebra over ''k''. Then Z\left(R \otimes_k F\right) = Z(R) \otimes_k F. *The center of the universal enveloping algebra of a ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Free Module
In mathematics, a free module is a module that has a basis – that is, a generating set consisting of linearly independent elements. Every vector space is a free module, but, if the ring of the coefficients is not a division ring (not a field in the commutative case), then there exist nonfree modules. Given any set and ring , there is a free module with basis , which is called the ''free module on'' or ''module of formal'' ''linear combinations'' of the elements of . A free abelian group is precisely a free module over the ring of integers. Definition For a ring R and an Rmodule M, the set E\subseteq M is a basis for M if: * E is a generating set for M; that is to say, every element of M is a finite sum of elements of E multiplied by coefficients in R; and * E is linearly independent, that is, for every subset \ of distinct elements of E, r_1 e_1 + r_2 e_2 + \cdots + r_n e_n = 0_M implies that r_1 = r_2 = \cdots = r_n = 0_R (where 0_M is the zero element of M a ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Module (mathematics)
In mathematics, a module is a generalization of the notion of vector space in which the field of scalars is replaced by a ring. The concept of ''module'' generalizes also the notion of abelian group, since the abelian groups are exactly the modules over the ring of integers. Like a vector space, a module is an additive abelian group, and scalar multiplication is distributive over the operation of addition between elements of the ring or module and is compatible with the ring multiplication. Modules are very closely related to the representation theory of groups. They are also one of the central notions of commutative algebra and homological algebra, and are used widely in algebraic geometry and algebraic topology. Introduction and definition Motivation In a vector space, the set of scalars is a field and acts on the vectors by scalar multiplication, subject to certain axioms such as the distributive law. In a module, the scalars need only be a ring, so the m ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Gaussian Elimination
In mathematics, Gaussian elimination, also known as row reduction, is an algorithm for solving systems of linear equations. It consists of a sequence of operations performed on the corresponding matrix of coefficients. This method can also be used to compute the rank of a matrix, the determinant of a square matrix, and the inverse of an invertible matrix. The method is named after Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777–1855) although some special cases of the method—albeit presented without proof—were known to Chinese mathematicians as early as circa 179 AD. To perform row reduction on a matrix, one uses a sequence of elementary row operations to modify the matrix until the lower lefthand corner of the matrix is filled with zeros, as much as possible. There are three types of elementary row operations: * Swapping two rows, * Multiplying a row by a nonzero number, * Adding a multiple of one row to another row. (subtraction can be achieved by multiplying one row with 1 and ad ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Matrix (mathematics)
In mathematics, a matrix (plural matrices) is a rectangle, rectangular array variable, array or table of numbers, symbol (formal), symbols, or expression (mathematics), expressions, arranged in rows and columns, which is used to represent a mathematical object or a property of such an object. For example, \begin1 & 9 & 13 \\20 & 5 & 6 \end is a matrix with two rows and three columns. This is often referred to as a "two by three matrix", a "matrix", or a matrix of dimension . Without further specifications, matrices represent linear maps, and allow explicit computations in linear algebra. Therefore, the study of matrices is a large part of linear algebra, and most properties and operation (mathematics), operations of abstract linear algebra can be expressed in terms of matrices. For example, matrix multiplication represents function composition, composition of linear maps. Not all matrices are related to linear algebra. This is, in particular, the case in graph theory, of in ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Invariant Basis Number
In mathematics, more specifically in the field of ring theory, a ring has the invariant basis number (IBN) property if all finitely generated free left modules over ''R'' have a welldefined rank. In the case of fields, the IBN property becomes the statement that finitedimensional vector spaces have a unique dimension. Definition A ring ''R'' has invariant basis number (IBN) if for all positive integers ''m'' and ''n'', ''R''''m'' isomorphic to ''R''''n'' (as left ''R''modules) implies that . Equivalently, this means there do not exist distinct positive integers ''m'' and ''n'' such that ''R''''m'' is isomorphic to ''R''''n''. Rephrasing the definition of invariant basis number in terms of matrices, it says that, whenever ''A'' is an ''m''by''n'' matrix over ''R'' and ''B'' is an ''n''by''m'' matrix over ''R'' such that and , then . This form reveals that the definition is left–right symmetric, so it makes no difference whether we define IBN in terms of left or right ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Free Module
In mathematics, a free module is a module that has a basis – that is, a generating set consisting of linearly independent elements. Every vector space is a free module, but, if the ring of the coefficients is not a division ring (not a field in the commutative case), then there exist nonfree modules. Given any set and ring , there is a free module with basis , which is called the ''free module on'' or ''module of formal'' ''linear combinations'' of the elements of . A free abelian group is precisely a free module over the ring of integers. Definition For a ring R and an Rmodule M, the set E\subseteq M is a basis for M if: * E is a generating set for M; that is to say, every element of M is a finite sum of elements of E multiplied by coefficients in R; and * E is linearly independent, that is, for every subset \ of distinct elements of E, r_1 e_1 + r_2 e_2 + \cdots + r_n e_n = 0_M implies that r_1 = r_2 = \cdots = r_n = 0_R (where 0_M is the zero element of M a ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Vector Space
In mathematics and physics, a vector space (also called a linear space) is a set whose elements, often called '' vectors'', may be added together and multiplied ("scaled") by numbers called ''scalars''. Scalars are often real numbers, but can be complex numbers or, more generally, elements of any field. The operations of vector addition and scalar multiplication must satisfy certain requirements, called ''vector axioms''. The terms real vector space and complex vector space are often used to specify the nature of the scalars: real coordinate space or complex coordinate space. Vector spaces generalize Euclidean vectors, which allow modeling of physical quantities, such as forces and velocity, that have not only a magnitude, but also a direction. The concept of vector spaces is fundamental for linear algebra, together with the concept of matrix, which allows computing in vector spaces. This provides a concise and synthetic way for manipulating and studying systems of linea ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Module (mathematics)
In mathematics, a module is a generalization of the notion of vector space in which the field of scalars is replaced by a ring. The concept of ''module'' generalizes also the notion of abelian group, since the abelian groups are exactly the modules over the ring of integers. Like a vector space, a module is an additive abelian group, and scalar multiplication is distributive over the operation of addition between elements of the ring or module and is compatible with the ring multiplication. Modules are very closely related to the representation theory of groups. They are also one of the central notions of commutative algebra and homological algebra, and are used widely in algebraic geometry and algebraic topology. Introduction and definition Motivation In a vector space, the set of scalars is a field and acts on the vectors by scalar multiplication, subject to certain axioms such as the distributive law. In a module, the scalars need only be a ring, so the m ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 