Disk (mathematics)
In geometry, a disk (also spelled disc). is the region in a plane bounded by a circle. A disk is said to be ''closed'' if it contains the circle that constitutes its boundary, and ''open'' if it does not. For a radius, r, an open disk is usually denoted as D_r and a closed disk is \overline. However in the field of topology the closed disk is usually denoted as D^2 while the open disk is \operatorname D^2. Formulas In Cartesian coordinates, the ''open disk'' of center (a, b) and radius ''R'' is given by the formula :D=\ while the ''closed disk'' of the same center and radius is given by :\overline=\. The area of a closed or open disk of radius ''R'' is π''R''2 (see area of a disk). Properties The disk has circular symmetry. The open disk and the closed disk are not topologically equivalent (that is, they are not homeomorphic), as they have different topological properties from each other. For instance, every closed disk is compact whereas every open disk is not compac ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Euler Characteristic
In mathematics, and more specifically in algebraic topology and polyhedral combinatorics, the Euler characteristic (or Euler number, or Euler–Poincaré characteristic) is a topological invariant, a number that describes a topological space's shape or structure regardless of the way it is bent. It is commonly denoted by \chi ( Greek lowercase letter chi). The Euler characteristic was originally defined for polyhedra and used to prove various theorems about them, including the classification of the Platonic solids. It was stated for Platonic solids in 1537 in an unpublished manuscript by Francesco Maurolico. Leonhard Euler, for whom the concept is named, introduced it for convex polyhedra more generally but failed to rigorously prove that it is an invariant. In modern mathematics, the Euler characteristic arises from homology and, more abstractly, homological algebra. Polyhedra The Euler characteristic \chi was classically defined for the surfaces of polyhedra, ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Abramowitz And Stegun
''Abramowitz and Stegun'' (''AS'') is the informal name of a 1964 mathematical reference work edited by Milton Abramowitz and Irene Stegun of the United States National Bureau of Standards (NBS), now the ''National Institute of Standards and Technology'' (NIST). Its full title is ''Handbook of Mathematical Functions with Formulas, Graphs, and Mathematical Tables''. A digital successor to the Handbook was released as the "Digital Library of Mathematical Functions" (DLMF) on 11 May 2010, along with a printed version, the ''NIST Handbook of Mathematical Functions'', published by Cambridge University Press. Overview Since it was first published in 1964, the 1046 page ''Handbook'' has been one of the most comprehensive sources of information on special functions, containing definitions, identities, approximations, plots, and tables of values of numerous functions used in virtually all fields of applied mathematics. The notation used in the ''Handbook'' is the '' de facto'' stan ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Law Of Cosines
In trigonometry, the law of cosines (also known as the cosine formula, cosine rule, or alKashi's theorem) relates the lengths of the sides of a triangle to the cosine of one of its angles. Using notation as in Fig. 1, the law of cosines states :c^2 = a^2 + b^2  2ab\cos\gamma, where denotes the angle contained between sides of lengths and and opposite the side of length . For the same figure, the other two relations are analogous: :a^2=b^2+c^22bc\cos\alpha, :b^2=a^2+c^22ac\cos\beta. The law of cosines generalizes the Pythagorean theorem, which holds only for right triangles: if the angle is a right angle (of measure 90 degrees, or radians), then , and thus the law of cosines reduces to the Pythagorean theorem: :c^2 = a^2 + b^2. The law of cosines is useful for computing the third side of a triangle when two sides and their enclosed angle are known. History Though the notion of the cosine was not yet developed in his time, Euclid's '' Elements'', dating back to th ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Elliptic Integrals
In integral calculus, an elliptic integral is one of a number of related functions defined as the value of certain integrals, which were first studied by Giulio Fagnano and Leonhard Euler (). Their name originates from their originally arising in connection with the problem of finding the arc length of an ellipse. Modern mathematics defines an "elliptic integral" as any function which can be expressed in the form f(x) = \int_^ R \left(t, \sqrt \right) \, dt, where is a rational function of its two arguments, is a polynomial of degree 3 or 4 with no repeated roots, and is a constant. In general, integrals in this form cannot be expressed in terms of elementary functions. Exceptions to this general rule are when has repeated roots, or when contains no odd powers of or if the integral is pseudoelliptic. However, with the appropriate reduction formula, every elliptic integral can be brought into a form that involves integrals over rational functions and the three Leg ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Euclidean Distance
In mathematics, the Euclidean distance between two points in Euclidean space is the length of a line segment between the two points. It can be calculated from the Cartesian coordinates of the points using the Pythagorean theorem, therefore occasionally being called the Pythagorean distance. These names come from the ancient Greek mathematicians Euclid and Pythagoras, although Euclid did not represent distances as numbers, and the connection from the Pythagorean theorem to distance calculation was not made until the 18th century. The distance between two objects that are not points is usually defined to be the smallest distance among pairs of points from the two objects. Formulas are known for computing distances between different types of objects, such as the distance from a point to a line. In advanced mathematics, the concept of distance has been generalized to abstract metric spaces, and other distances than Euclidean have been studied. In some applications in statistic ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Numerical Integration
In analysis, numerical integration comprises a broad family of algorithms for calculating the numerical value of a definite integral, and by extension, the term is also sometimes used to describe the numerical solution of differential equations. This article focuses on calculation of definite integrals. The term numerical quadrature (often abbreviated to ''quadrature'') is more or less a synonym for ''numerical integration'', especially as applied to onedimensional integrals. Some authors refer to numerical integration over more than one dimension as cubature; others take ''quadrature'' to include higherdimensional integration. The basic problem in numerical integration is to compute an approximate solution to a definite integral :\int_a^b f(x) \, dx to a given degree of accuracy. If is a smooth function integrated over a small number of dimensions, and the domain of integration is bounded, there are many methods for approximating the integral to the desired precision. ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Multivariate Normal Distribution
In probability theory and statistics, the multivariate normal distribution, multivariate Gaussian distribution, or joint normal distribution is a generalization of the onedimensional ( univariate) normal distribution to higher dimensions. One definition is that a random vector is said to be ''k''variate normally distributed if every linear combination of its ''k'' components has a univariate normal distribution. Its importance derives mainly from the multivariate central limit theorem. The multivariate normal distribution is often used to describe, at least approximately, any set of (possibly) correlated realvalued random variables each of which clusters around a mean value. Definitions Notation and parameterization The multivariate normal distribution of a ''k''dimensional random vector \mathbf = (X_1,\ldots,X_k)^ can be written in the following notation: : \mathbf\ \sim\ \mathcal(\boldsymbol\mu,\, \boldsymbol\Sigma), or to make it explicitly known that ''X'' ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Brouwer Fixed Point Theorem
Brouwer's fixedpoint theorem is a fixedpoint theorem in topology, named after L. E. J. (Bertus) Brouwer. It states that for any continuous function f mapping a compact convex set to itself there is a point x_0 such that f(x_0)=x_0. The simplest forms of Brouwer's theorem are for continuous functions f from a closed interval I in the real numbers to itself or from a closed disk D to itself. A more general form than the latter is for continuous functions from a convex compact subset K of Euclidean space to itself. Among hundreds of fixedpoint theorems, Brouwer's is particularly well known, due in part to its use across numerous fields of mathematics. In its original field, this result is one of the key theorems characterizing the topology of Euclidean spaces, along with the Jordan curve theorem, the hairy ball theorem, the invariance of dimension and the Borsuk–Ulam theorem. This gives it a place among the fundamental theorems of topology. The theorem is also used for provin ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Surjective
In mathematics, a surjective function (also known as surjection, or onto function) is a function that every element can be mapped from element so that . In other words, every element of the function's codomain is the image of one element of its domain. It is not required that be unique; the function may map one or more elements of to the same element of . The term ''surjective'' and the related terms '' injective'' and '' bijective'' were introduced by Nicolas Bourbaki, a group of mainly French 20thcentury mathematicians who, under this pseudonym, wrote a series of books presenting an exposition of modern advanced mathematics, beginning in 1935. The French word '' sur'' means ''over'' or ''above'', and relates to the fact that the image of the domain of a surjective function completely covers the function's codomain. Any function induces a surjection by restricting its codomain to the image of its domain. Every surjective function has a right inverse assuming the ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 