Diffusion
Diffusion is the net movement of anything (for example, atoms, ions, molecules, energy) generally from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration. Diffusion is driven by a gradient in Gibbs free energy or chemical potential. It is possible to diffuse "uphill" from a region of lower concentration to a region of higher concentration, like in spinodal decomposition. The concept of diffusion is widely used in many fields, including physics ( particle diffusion), chemistry, biology, sociology, economics, and finance (diffusion of people, ideas, and price values). The central idea of diffusion, however, is common to all of these: a substance or collection undergoing diffusion spreads out from a point or location at which there is a higher concentration of that substance or collection. A gradient is the change in the value of a quantity, for example, concentration, pressure, or temperature with the change in another variable, usually distance. ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Diffusion V2 20101120
Diffusion is the net movement of anything (for example, atoms, ions, molecules, energy) generally from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration. Diffusion is driven by a gradient in Gibbs free energy or chemical potential. It is possible to diffuse "uphill" from a region of lower concentration to a region of higher concentration, like in spinodal decomposition. The concept of diffusion is widely used in many fields, including physics ( particle diffusion), chemistry, biology, sociology, economics, and finance (diffusion of people, ideas, and price values). The central idea of diffusion, however, is common to all of these: a substance or collection undergoing diffusion spreads out from a point or location at which there is a higher concentration of that substance or collection. A gradient is the change in the value of a quantity, for example, concentration, pressure, or temperature with the change in another variable, usually distance. A change in ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Diffusion
Diffusion is the net movement of anything (for example, atoms, ions, molecules, energy) generally from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration. Diffusion is driven by a gradient in Gibbs free energy or chemical potential. It is possible to diffuse "uphill" from a region of lower concentration to a region of higher concentration, like in spinodal decomposition. The concept of diffusion is widely used in many fields, including physics ( particle diffusion), chemistry, biology, sociology, economics, and finance (diffusion of people, ideas, and price values). The central idea of diffusion, however, is common to all of these: a substance or collection undergoing diffusion spreads out from a point or location at which there is a higher concentration of that substance or collection. A gradient is the change in the value of a quantity, for example, concentration, pressure, or temperature with the change in another variable, usually distance. ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Fick's Laws Of Diffusion
Fick's laws of diffusion describe diffusion and were derived by Adolf Fick in 1855. They can be used to solve for the diffusion coefficient, . Fick's first law can be used to derive his second law which in turn is identical to the diffusion equation. A diffusion process that obeys Fick's laws is called normal or Fickian diffusion; otherwise, it is called anomalous diffusion or nonFickian diffusion. History In 1855, physiologist Adolf Fick first reported* * his now wellknown laws governing the transport of mass through diffusive means. Fick's work was inspired by the earlier experiments of Thomas Graham, which fell short of proposing the fundamental laws for which Fick would become famous. Fick's law is analogous to the relationships discovered at the same epoch by other eminent scientists: Darcy's law (hydraulic flow), Ohm's law (charge transport), and Fourier's Law (heat transport). Fick's experiments (modeled on Graham's) dealt with measuring the concentrations and ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Molecular Diffusion
Molecular diffusion, often simply called diffusion, is the thermal motion of all (liquid or gas) particles at temperatures above absolute zero. The rate of this movement is a function of temperature, viscosity of the fluid and the size (mass) of the particles. Diffusion explains the net flux of molecules from a region of higher concentration to one of lower concentration. Once the concentrations are equal the molecules continue to move, but since there is no concentration gradient the process of molecular diffusion has ceased and is instead governed by the process of selfdiffusion, originating from the random motion of the molecules. The result of diffusion is a gradual mixing of material such that the distribution of molecules is uniform. Since the molecules are still in motion, but an equilibrium has been established, the result of molecular diffusion is called a "dynamic equilibrium". In a phase with uniform temperature, absent external net forces acting on the particles, th ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Anomalous Diffusion
Anomalous diffusion is a diffusion process with a nonlinear relationship between the mean squared displacement (MSD), \langle r^(\tau )\rangle , and time. This behavior is in stark contrast to Brownian motion, the typical diffusion process described by Einstein and Smoluchowski, where the MSD is linear in time (namely, \langle r^(\tau )\rangle =2dD\tau with ''d'' being the number of dimensions and ''D'' the diffusion coefficient). Examples of anomalous diffusion in nature have been observed in biology in the cell nucleus, plasma membrane and cytoplasm. Unlike typical diffusion, anomalous diffusion is described by a power law, \langle r^(\tau )\rangle =K_\alpha\tau^\alphawhere K_\alpha is the socalled generalized diffusion coefficient and \tau is the elapsed time. In Brownian motion, α = 1. If α > 1, the process is superdiffusive. Superdiffusion can be the result of active cellular transport processes or due to jumps with a heavytail distribution. If α < 1, the particl ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Brownian Motion
Brownian motion, or pedesis (from grc, πήδησις "leaping"), is the random motion of particles suspended in a medium (a liquid or a gas). This pattern of motion typically consists of random fluctuations in a particle's position inside a fluid subdomain, followed by a relocation to another subdomain. Each relocation is followed by more fluctuations within the new closed volume. This pattern describes a fluid at thermal equilibrium, defined by a given temperature. Within such a fluid, there exists no preferential direction of flow (as in transport phenomena). More specifically, the fluid's overall linear and angular momenta remain null over time. The kinetic energies of the molecular Brownian motions, together with those of molecular rotations and vibrations, sum up to the caloric component of a fluid's internal energy (the equipartition theorem). This motion is named after the botanist Robert Brown, who first described the phenomenon in 1827, while looking t ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Transport Phenomena
In engineering, physics, and chemistry, the study of transport phenomena concerns the exchange of mass, energy, charge, momentum and angular momentum between observed and studied systems. While it draws from fields as diverse as continuum mechanics and thermodynamics, it places a heavy emphasis on the commonalities between the topics covered. Mass, momentum, and heat transport all share a very similar mathematical framework, and the parallels between them are exploited in the study of transport phenomena to draw deep mathematical connections that often provide very useful tools in the analysis of one field that are directly derived from the others. The fundamental analysis in all three subfields of mass, heat, and momentum transfer are often grounded in the simple principle that the total sum of the quantities being studied must be conserved by the system and its environment. Thus, the different phenomena that lead to transport are each considered individually with the knowledge ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Spinodal Decomposition
Spinodal decomposition is a mechanism by which a single thermodynamic phase spontaneously separates into two phases (without nucleation). Decomposition occurs when there is no thermodynamic barrier to phase separation. As a result, phase separation via decomposition does not require the nucleation events resulting from thermodynamic fluctuations, which normally trigger phase separation. Spinodal decomposition is observed when mixtures of metals or polymers separate into two coexisting phases, each rich in one species and poor in the other. When the two phases emerge in approximately equal proportion (each occupying about the same volume or area), characteristic intertwined structures are formed that gradually coarsen (see animation). The dynamics of spinodal decomposition is commonly modeled using the Cahn–Hilliard equation. Spinodal decomposition is fundamentally different from nucleation and growth. When there is a nucleation barrier to the formation of a second phase, time i ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Random Walk
In mathematics, a random walk is a random process that describes a path that consists of a succession of random steps on some mathematical space. An elementary example of a random walk is the random walk on the integer number line \mathbb Z which starts at 0, and at each step moves +1 or −1 with equal probability. Other examples include the path traced by a molecule as it travels in a liquid or a gas (see Brownian motion), the search path of a foraging animal, or the price of a fluctuating stock and the financial status of a gambler. Random walks have applications to engineering and many scientific fields including ecology, psychology, computer science, physics, chemistry, biology, economics, and sociology. The term ''random walk'' was first introduced by Karl Pearson in 1905. Lattice random walk A popular random walk model is that of a random walk on a regular lattice, where at each step the location jumps to another site according to some probability distribution. In ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Mean Squared Displacement
In statistical mechanics, the mean squared displacement (MSD, also mean square displacement, average squared displacement, or mean square fluctuation) is a measure of the deviation of the position of a particle with respect to a reference position over time. It is the most common measure of the spatial extent of random motion, and can be thought of as measuring the portion of the system "explored" by the random walker. In the realm of biophysics and environmental engineering, the Mean Squared Displacement is measured over time to determine if a particle is spreading slowly due to diffusion, or if an advective force is also contributing. Another relevant concept, the variancerelated diameter (VRD, which is twice the square root of MSD), is also used in studying the transportation and mixing phenomena in the realm of environmental engineering. It prominently appears in the Debye–Waller factor (describing vibrations within the solid state) and in the Langevin equation (describi ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Convection
Convection is single or multiphase fluid flow that occurs spontaneously due to the combined effects of material property heterogeneity and body forces on a fluid, most commonly density and gravity (see buoyancy). When the cause of the convection is unspecified, convection due to the effects of thermal expansion and buoyancy can be assumed. Convection may also take place in soft solids or mixtures where particles can flow. Convective flow may be transient (such as when a multiphase mixture of oil and water separates) or steady state (see Convection cell). The convection may be due to gravitational, electromagnetic or fictitious body forces. Heat transfer by natural convection plays a role in the structure of Earth's atmosphere, its oceans, and its mantle. Discrete convective cells in the atmosphere can be identified by clouds, with stronger convection resulting in thunderstorms. Natural convection also plays a role in stellar physics. Convection is often categor ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Chemical Potential
In thermodynamics, the chemical potential of a species is the energy that can be absorbed or released due to a change of the particle number of the given species, e.g. in a chemical reaction or phase transition. The chemical potential of a species in a mixture is defined as the rate of change of free energy of a thermodynamic system with respect to the change in the number of atoms or molecules of the species that are added to the system. Thus, it is the partial derivative of the free energy with respect to the amount of the species, all other species' concentrations in the mixture remaining constant. When both temperature and pressure are held constant, and the number of particles is expressed in moles, the chemical potential is the partial molar Gibbs free energy. At chemical equilibrium or in phase equilibrium, the total sum of the product of chemical potentials and stoichiometric coefficients is zero, as the free energy is at a minimum. In a system in diffusion equilibrium, ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 