Dependent And Independent Variables
Dependent and independent variables are variables in mathematical modeling, statistical modeling and experimental sciences. Dependent variables receive this name because, in an experiment, their values are studied under the supposition or demand that they depend, by some law or rule (e.g., by a mathematical function), on the values of other variables. Independent variables, in turn, are not seen as depending on any other variable in the scope of the experiment in question. In this sense, some common independent variables are time, space, density, mass, fluid flow rate, and previous values of some observed value of interest (e.g. human population size) to predict future values (the dependent variable). Of the two, it is always the dependent variable whose variation is being studied, by altering inputs, also known as regressors in a statistical context. In an experiment, any variable that can be attributed a value without attributing a value to any other variable is called an ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Variable And Attribute (research)
In science and research, an attribute is a quality of an object (person, thing, etc.). Earl R. Babbie, ''The Practice of Social Research'', 12th edition, Wadsworth Publishing, 2009, , p. 1418 Attributes are closely related to variables. A variable is a logical set of attributes. Variables can "vary" – for example, be high or low. How high, or how low, is determined by the value of the attribute (and in fact, an attribute could be just the word "low" or "high"). ''(For example see: Binary option)'' While an attribute is often intuitive, the variable is the operationalized way in which the attribute is represented for further data processing. In data processing data are often represented by a combination of ''items'' (objects organized in rows), and multiple variables (organized in columns). Values of each variable statistically "vary" (or are distributed) across the variable's domain. A domain is a set of all possible values that a variable is allowed to have. The values are or ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Function (mathematics)
In mathematics, a function from a set to a set assigns to each element of exactly one element of .; the words map, mapping, transformation, correspondence, and operator are often used synonymously. The set is called the domain of the function and the set is called the codomain of the function.Codomain ''Encyclopedia of Mathematics'Codomain. ''Encyclopedia of Mathematics''/ref> The earliest known approach to the notion of function can be traced back to works of Persian mathematicians AlBiruni and Sharaf alDin alTusi. Functions were originally the idealization of how a varying quantity depends on another quantity. For example, the position of a planet is a ''function'' of time. Historically, the concept was elaborated with the infinitesimal calculus at the end of the 17th century, and, until the 19th century, the functions that were considered were differentiable (that is, they had a high degree of regularity). The concept of a function was formalized at the end of ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Test Data
Test data is data which has been specifically identified for use in tests, typically of a computer program. Background Some data may be used in a confirmatory way, typically to verify that a given set of input to a given function produces some expected result. Other data may be used in order to challenge the ability of the program to respond to unusual, extreme, exceptional, or unexpected input. Test data may be produced in a focused or systematic way (as is typically the case in domain testing), or by using other, lessfocused approaches (as is typically the case in highvolume randomized automated tests). Test data may be produced by the tester, or by a program or function that aids the tester. Test data may be recorded for reuse or used only once. Test data can be created manually, by using data generation tools, or be retrieved from an existing production environment. The data set can consist of synthetic (fake) data, but preferably it consists of representative (real) data. ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

RapidMiner
RapidMiner is a data science platform designed for enterprises that analyses the collective impact of organizations’ employees, expertise and data. Rapid Miner's data science platform is intended to support many analytics users across a broad AI lifecycle. It was acquired by Altair Engineering in September 2022. History RapidMiner, formerly known as YALE (Yet Another Learning Environment), was developed starting in 2001 by Ralf Klingenberg, Ingo Mierswa, and Simon Fischer at the Artificial Intelligence Unit of the Technical University of Dortmund. Starting in 2006, its development was driven by RapidI, a company founded by Ingo Mierswa and Ralf Klinkenberg in the same year. In 2007, the name of the software was changed from YALE to RapidMiner. In 2013, the company rebranded from RapidI to RapidMiner. Description RapidMiner uses a client/server model with the server offered either onpremises or in public or private cloud infrastructures. According to Bloor Research, Rapi ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Machine Learning
Machine learning (ML) is a field of inquiry devoted to understanding and building methods that 'learn', that is, methods that leverage data to improve performance on some set of tasks. It is seen as a part of artificial intelligence. Machine learning algorithms build a model based on sample data, known as training data, in order to make predictions or decisions without being explicitly programmed to do so. Machine learning algorithms are used in a wide variety of applications, such as in medicine, email filtering, speech recognition, agriculture, and computer vision, where it is difficult or unfeasible to develop conventional algorithms to perform the needed tasks.Hu, J.; Niu, H.; Carrasco, J.; Lennox, B.; Arvin, F.,VoronoiBased MultiRobot Autonomous Exploration in Unknown Environments via Deep Reinforcement Learning IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 2020. A subset of machine learning is closely related to computational statistics, which focuses on making pred ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Multivariate Statistics
Multivariate statistics is a subdivision of statistics encompassing the simultaneous observation and analysis of more than one outcome variable. Multivariate statistics concerns understanding the different aims and background of each of the different forms of multivariate analysis, and how they relate to each other. The practical application of multivariate statistics to a particular problem may involve several types of univariate and multivariate analyses in order to understand the relationships between variables and their relevance to the problem being studied. In addition, multivariate statistics is concerned with multivariate probability distributions, in terms of both :*how these can be used to represent the distributions of observed data; :*how they can be used as part of statistical inference, particularly where several different quantities are of interest to the same analysis. Certain types of problems involving multivariate data, for example simple linear regression ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Design Of Experiments
The design of experiments (DOE, DOX, or experimental design) is the design of any task that aims to describe and explain the variation of information under conditions that are hypothesized to reflect the variation. The term is generally associated with experiments in which the design introduces conditions that directly affect the variation, but may also refer to the design of quasiexperiments, in which natural conditions that influence the variation are selected for observation. In its simplest form, an experiment aims at predicting the outcome by introducing a change of the preconditions, which is represented by one or more independent variables, also referred to as "input variables" or "predictor variables." The change in one or more independent variables is generally hypothesized to result in a change in one or more dependent variables, also referred to as "output variables" or "response variables." The experimental design may also identify control variables that must b ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Simulation
A simulation is the imitation of the operation of a realworld process or system over time. Simulations require the use of Conceptual model, models; the model represents the key characteristics or behaviors of the selected system or process, whereas the simulation represents the evolution of the model over time. Often, computers are used to execute the computer simulation, simulation. Simulation is used in many contexts, such as simulation of technology for performance tuning or optimizing, safety engineering, testing, training, education, and video games. Simulation is also used with scientific modelling of natural systems or human systems to gain insight into their functioning, as in economics. Simulation can be used to show the eventual real effects of alternative conditions and courses of action. Simulation is also used when the real system cannot be engaged, because it may not be accessible, or it may be dangerous or unacceptable to engage, or it is being designed bu ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Scatter Plot
A scatter plot (also called a scatterplot, scatter graph, scatter chart, scattergram, or scatter diagram) is a type of plot or mathematical diagram using Cartesian coordinates to display values for typically two variables for a set of data. If the points are coded (color/shape/size), one additional variable can be displayed. The data are displayed as a collection of points, each having the value of one variable determining the position on the horizontal axis and the value of the other variable determining the position on the vertical axis. Overview A scatter plot can be used either when one continuous variable is under the control of the experimenter and the other depends on it or when both continuous variables are independent. If a parameter exists that is systematically incremented and/or decremented by the other, it is called the ''control parameter'' or independent variable and is customarily plotted along the horizontal axis. The measured or dependent variable is cus ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Linear Regression
In statistics, linear regression is a linear approach for modelling the relationship between a scalar response and one or more explanatory variables (also known as dependent and independent variables). The case of one explanatory variable is called '' simple linear regression''; for more than one, the process is called multiple linear regression. This term is distinct from multivariate linear regression, where multiple correlated dependent variables are predicted, rather than a single scalar variable. In linear regression, the relationships are modeled using linear predictor functions whose unknown model parameters are estimated from the data. Such models are called linear models. Most commonly, the conditional mean of the response given the values of the explanatory variables (or predictors) is assumed to be an affine function of those values; less commonly, the conditional median or some other quantile is used. Like all forms of regression analysis, linear regression focuse ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Linear Model
In statistics, the term linear model is used in different ways according to the context. The most common occurrence is in connection with regression models and the term is often taken as synonymous with linear regression model. However, the term is also used in time series analysis with a different meaning. In each case, the designation "linear" is used to identify a subclass of models for which substantial reduction in the complexity of the related statistical theory is possible. Linear regression models For the regression case, the statistical model is as follows. Given a (random) sample (Y_i, X_, \ldots, X_), \, i = 1, \ldots, n the relation between the observations Y_i and the independent variables X_ is formulated as :Y_i = \beta_0 + \beta_1 \phi_1(X_) + \cdots + \beta_p \phi_p(X_) + \varepsilon_i \qquad i = 1, \ldots, n where \phi_1, \ldots, \phi_p may be nonlinear functions. In the above, the quantities \varepsilon_i are random variables representing errors in th ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 