Density
Density (volumetric mass density or specific mass) is the substance's mass per unit of volume. The symbol most often used for density is ''ρ'' (the lower case Greek letter rho), although the Latin letter ''D'' can also be used. Mathematically, density is defined as mass divided by volume: : \rho = \frac where ''ρ'' is the density, ''m'' is the mass, and ''V'' is the volume. In some cases (for instance, in the United States oil and gas industry), density is loosely defined as its weight per unit volume, although this is scientifically inaccurate – this quantity is more specifically called specific weight. For a pure substance the density has the same numerical value as its mass concentration. Different materials usually have different densities, and density may be relevant to buoyancy, purity and packaging. Osmium and iridium are the densest known elements at standard conditions for temperature and pressure. To simplify comparisons of density across different s ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Specific Gravity
Relative density, or specific gravity, is the ratio of the density (mass of a unit volume) of a substance to the density of a given reference material. Specific gravity for liquids is nearly always measured with respect to water (molecule), water at its densest (at ); for gases, the reference is air at room temperature (). The term "relative density" (often abbreviated r.d. or RD) is often preferred in scientific usage, whereas the term "specific gravity" is deprecation, deprecated. If a substance's relative density is less than 1 then it is less dense than the reference; if greater than 1 then it is denser than the reference. If the relative density is exactly 1 then the densities are equal; that is, equal volumes of the two substances have the same mass. If the reference material is water, then a substance with a relative density (or specific gravity) less than 1 will float in water. For example, an ice cube, with a relative density of about 0.91, will float. A substance wi ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Relative Density
Relative density, or specific gravity, is the ratio of the density (mass of a unit volume) of a substance to the density of a given reference material. Specific gravity for liquids is nearly always measured with respect to water at its densest (at ); for gases, the reference is air at room temperature (). The term "relative density" (often abbreviated r.d. or RD) is often preferred in scientific usage, whereas the term "specific gravity" is deprecated. If a substance's relative density is less than 1 then it is less dense than the reference; if greater than 1 then it is denser than the reference. If the relative density is exactly 1 then the densities are equal; that is, equal volumes of the two substances have the same mass. If the reference material is water, then a substance with a relative density (or specific gravity) less than 1 will float in water. For example, an ice cube, with a relative density of about 0.91, will float. A substance with a relative density greater t ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Buoyancy
Buoyancy (), or upthrust, is an upward force exerted by a fluid that opposes the weight of a partially or fully immersed object. In a column of fluid, pressure increases with depth as a result of the weight of the overlying fluid. Thus the pressure at the bottom of a column of fluid is greater than at the top of the column. Similarly, the pressure at the bottom of an object submerged in a fluid is greater than at the top of the object. The pressure difference results in a net upward force on the object. The magnitude of the force is proportional to the pressure difference, and (as explained by Archimedes' principle) is equivalent to the weight of the fluid that would otherwise occupy the submerged volume of the object, i.e. the displaced fluid. For this reason, an object whose average density is greater than that of the fluid in which it is submerged tends to sink. If the object is less dense than the liquid, the force can keep the object afloat. This can occur only in a no ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Convection
Convection is single or multiphase fluid flow that occurs spontaneously due to the combined effects of material property heterogeneity and body forces on a fluid, most commonly density and gravity (see buoyancy). When the cause of the convection is unspecified, convection due to the effects of thermal expansion and buoyancy can be assumed. Convection may also take place in soft solids or mixtures where particles can flow. Convective flow may be transient (such as when a multiphase mixture of oil and water separates) or steady state (see Convection cell). The convection may be due to gravitational, electromagnetic or fictitious body forces. Heat transfer by natural convection plays a role in the structure of Earth's atmosphere, its oceans, and its mantle. Discrete convective cells in the atmosphere can be identified by clouds, with stronger convection resulting in thunderstorms. Natural convection also plays a role in stellar physics. Convection is often categorised or d ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Specific Volume
In thermodynamics, the specific volume of a substance (symbol: , nu) is an intrinsic property of the substance, defined as the ratio of the substance's volume () to its mass (). It is the reciprocal of density (rho) and it is related to the molar volume and molar mass: :\nu = \frac = \rho^ = \frac The standard unit of specific volume is cubic meters per kilogram (m3/kg), but other units include ft3/lb, ft3/slug, or mL/g. Specific volume for an ideal gas is related to the molar gas constant () and the gas's temperature (), pressure (), and molar mass () as shown: Since PV = and n = \frac : \nu = \frac = \frac Applications Specific volume is commonly applied to: * Molar volume * Volume (thermodynamics) * Partial molar volume Imagine a variablevolume, airtight chamber containing a certain number of atoms of oxygen gas. Consider the following four examples: * If the chamber is made smaller without allowing gas in or out, the density increases and the specific volume decreases ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Intensive Property
Physical properties of materials and systems can often be categorized as being either intensive or extensive, according to how the property changes when the size (or extent) of the system changes. According to IUPAC, an intensive quantity is one whose magnitude is independent of the size of the system, whereas an extensive quantity is one whose magnitude is additive for subsystems. The terms ''intensive and extensive quantities'' were introduced into physics by German writer Georg Helm in 1898, and by American physicist and chemist Richard C. Tolman in 1917. An intensive property does not depend on the system size or the amount of material in the system. It is not necessarily homogeneously distributed in space; it can vary from place to place in a body of matter and radiation. Examples of intensive properties include temperature, ''T''; refractive index, ''n''; density, ''ρ''; and hardness, ''η''. By contrast, extensive properties such as the mass, volume and entropy of sys ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Mass Concentration (chemistry)
In chemistry, the mass concentration (or ) is defined as the mass of a constituent divided by the volume of the mixture . :\rho_i = \frac For a pure chemical the mass concentration equals its density (mass divided by volume); thus the mass concentration of a component in a mixture can be called the density of a component in a mixture. This explains the usage of (the lower case Greek letter rho), the symbol most often used for density. Definition and properties The volume in the definition refers to the volume of the solution, ''not'' the volume of the solvent. One litre of a solution usually contains either slightly more or slightly less than 1 litre of solvent because the process of dissolution causes volume of liquid to increase or decrease. Sometimes the mass concentration is called titre. Notation The notation common with mass density underlines the connection between the two quantities (the mass concentration being the mass density of a component in the solution), bu ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Specific Density
Specific density is the ratio of the mass versus the volume of a material. Density vs. gravity Specific density is based upon units of mass and volume, while specific gravity Relative density, or specific gravity, is the ratio of the density (mass of a unit volume) of a substance to the density of a given reference material. Specific gravity for liquids is nearly always measured with respect to water (molecule), wa ... is dimensionless. References Physical quantities Density Volume Ratios {{Physicsstub ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Iridium
Iridium is a chemical element with the symbol Ir and atomic number 77. A very hard, brittle, silverywhite transition metal of the platinum group, it is considered the seconddensest naturally occurring metal (after osmium) with a density of as defined by experimental Xray crystallography. It is one of the most corrosionresistant metals, even at temperatures as high as . However, corrosionresistance is not quantifiable in absolute terms; although only certain molten salts and halogens are corrosive to solid iridium, finely divided iridium dust is much more reactive and can be flammable, whereas gold dust is not flammable but can be attacked by substances that iridium resists, such as aqua regia. Iridium was discovered in 1803 among insoluble impurities in natural platinum. Smithson Tennant, the primary discoverer, named it after the Greek goddess Iris, personification of the rainbow, because of the striking and diverse colors of its salts. Iridium is one of the rarest ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Specific Weight
The specific weight, also known as the unit weight, is the weight per unit volume of a material. A commonly used value is the specific weight of water on Earth at , which is .National Council of Examiners for Engineering and Surveying (2005). ''Fundamentals of Engineering SuppliedReference Handbook'' (7th ed.). . Often a source of confusion is that the terms ''specific gravity'', and less often ''specific weight'', are also used for relative density. A common symbol for specific weight is , the Greek letter Gamma. Definition The specific weight, , of a material is defined as the product of its density, , and the standard gravity, : \gamma = \rho \, g The density of the material is defined as mass per unit volume, typically measured in kg/m3. The standard gravity is acceleration due to gravity, usually given in m/s2, and on Earth usually taken as . Unlike density, specific weight is not a fixed property of a material. It depends on the value of the gravitational acceleration, ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Volume
Volume is a measure of occupied threedimensional space. It is often quantified numerically using SI derived units (such as the cubic metre and litre) or by various imperial or US customary units (such as the gallon, quart, cubic inch). The definition of length (cubed) is interrelated with volume. The volume of a container is generally understood to be the capacity of the container; i.e., the amount of fluid (gas or liquid) that the container could hold, rather than the amount of space the container itself displaces. In ancient times, volume is measured using similarshaped natural containers and later on, standardized containers. Some simple threedimensional shapes can have its volume easily calculated using arithmetic formulas. Volumes of more complicated shapes can be calculated with integral calculus if a formula exists for the shape's boundary. Zero, one and twodimensional objects have no volume; in fourth and higher dimensions, an analogous concept to the normal vo ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Archimedes
Archimedes of Syracuse (;; ) was a Greek mathematician, physicist, engineer, astronomer, and inventor from the ancient city of Syracuse in Sicily. Although few details of his life are known, he is regarded as one of the leading scientists in classical antiquity. Considered the greatest mathematician of ancient history, and one of the greatest of all time,* * * * * * * * * * Archimedes anticipated modern calculus and analysis by applying the concept of the infinitely small and the method of exhaustion to derive and rigorously prove a range of geometrical theorems. These include the area of a circle, the surface area and volume of a sphere, the area of an ellipse, the area under a parabola, the volume of a segment of a paraboloid of revolution, the volume of a segment of a hyperboloid of revolution, and the area of a spiral. Heath, Thomas L. 1897. ''Works of Archimedes''. Archimedes' other mathematical achievements include deriving an approximation of pi, defining and in ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 