Cyclic Redundancy Check
A cyclic redundancy check (CRC) is an errordetecting code commonly used in digital networks and storage devices to detect accidental changes to digital data. Blocks of data entering these systems get a short ''check value'' attached, based on the remainder of a polynomial division of their contents. On retrieval, the calculation is repeated and, in the event the check values do not match, corrective action can be taken against data corruption. CRCs can be used for error correction (see bitfilters). CRCs are so called because the ''check'' (data verification) value is a ''redundancy'' (it expands the message without adding information) and the algorithm is based on ''cyclic'' codes. CRCs are popular because they are simple to implement in binary hardware, easy to analyze mathematically, and particularly good at detecting common errors caused by noise in transmission channels. Because the check value has a fixed length, the function that generates it is occasionally used ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Error Correcting Code
In computing, telecommunication, information theory, and coding theory, an error correction code, sometimes error correcting code, (ECC) is used for controlling errors in data over unreliable or noisy communication channels. The central idea is the sender encodes the message with redundant information in the form of an ECC. The redundancy allows the receiver to detect a limited number of errors that may occur anywhere in the message, and often to correct these errors without retransmission. The American mathematician Richard Hamming pioneered this field in the 1940s and invented the first errorcorrecting code in 1950: the Hamming (7,4) code. ECC contrasts with error detection in that errors that are encountered can be corrected, not simply detected. The advantage is that a system using ECC does not require a reverse channel to request retransmission of data when an error occurs. The downside is that there is a fixed overhead that is added to the message, thereby requiring a hig ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Generator Polynomial
In coding theory, a polynomial code is a type of linear code whose set of valid code words consists of those polynomials (usually of some fixed length) that are polynomial long division, divisible by a given fixed polynomial (of shorter length, called the ''generator polynomial''). Definition Fix a finite field GF(q), whose elements we call ''symbols''. For the purposes of constructing polynomial codes, we identify a string of n symbols a_\ldots a_0 with the polynomial :a_x^ + \cdots + a_1x + a_0.\, Fix integers m \leq n and let g(x) be some fixed polynomial of degree m, called the ''generator polynomial''. The ''polynomial code generated by g(x)'' is the code whose code words are precisely the polynomials of degree less than n that are polynomial long division, divisible (without remainder) by g(x). Example Consider the polynomial code over GF(2)=\ with n=5, m=2, and generator polynomial g(x)=x^2+x+1. This code consists of the following code words: :0\cdot g(x),\quad 1\cdo ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Parity Bit
A parity bit, or check bit, is a bit added to a string of binary code. Parity bits are a simple form of error detecting code. Parity bits are generally applied to the smallest units of a communication protocol, typically 8bit octets (bytes), although they can also be applied separately to an entire message string of bits. The parity bit ensures that the total number of 1bits in the string is even or odd. Accordingly, there are two variants of parity bits: even parity bit and odd parity bit. In the case of even parity, for a given set of bits, the bits whose value is 1 are counted. If that count is odd, the parity bit value is set to 1, making the total count of occurrences of 1s in the whole set (including the parity bit) an even number. If the count of 1s in a given set of bits is already even, the parity bit's value is 0. In the case of odd parity, the coding is reversed. For a given set of bits, if the count of bits with a value of 1 is even, the parity bit value is set ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Table
Table may refer to: * Table (furniture), a piece of furniture with a flat surface and one or more legs * Table (landform), a flat area of land * Table (information), a data arrangement with rows and columns * Table (database), how the table data arrangement is used within databases * Calligra Tables, a spreadsheet application * Mathematical table * Table (parliamentary procedure) * Tables (board game) * Table, surface of the sound board (music) of a string instrument * ''AlMa'ida'', the fifth ''surah'' of the Qur'an, usually translated as “The Table” * Water table See also * Spreadsheet, a computer application * Table cut, a type of diamond cut * The Table (other) * Table Mountain (other) * Table Rock (other) * Tabler (other) * Tablet (other) Tablet may refer to: Medicine * Tablet (pharmacy), a mixture of pharmacological substances pressed into a small cake or bar, colloquially called a "pill" Computing * Tablet computer ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Least Significant Bit
In computing, bit numbering is the convention used to identify the bit positions in a binary number. Bit significance and indexing In computing, the least significant bit (LSB) is the bit position in a binary integer representing the binary 1s place of the integer. Similarly, the most significant bit (MSB) represents the highestorder place of the binary integer. The LSB is sometimes referred to as the ''loworder bit'' or ''rightmost bit'', due to the convention in positional notation of writing less significant digits further to the right. The MSB is similarly referred to as the ''highorder bit'' or ''leftmost bit''. In both cases, the LSB and MSB correlate directly to the least significant digit and most significant digit of a decimal integer. Bit indexing correlates to the positional notation of the value in base 2. For this reason, bit index is not affected by how the value is stored on the device, such as the value's byte order. Rather, it is a property of the n ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Most Significant Bit
In computing, bit numbering is the convention used to identify the bit positions in a binary number. Bit significance and indexing In computing, the least significant bit (LSB) is the bit position in a binary integer representing the binary 1s place of the integer. Similarly, the most significant bit (MSB) represents the highestorder place of the binary integer. The LSB is sometimes referred to as the ''loworder bit'' or ''rightmost bit'', due to the convention in positional notation of writing less significant digits further to the right. The MSB is similarly referred to as the ''highorder bit'' or ''leftmost bit''. In both cases, the LSB and MSB correlate directly to the least significant digit and most significant digit of a decimal integer. Bit indexing correlates to the positional notation of the value in base 2. For this reason, bit index is not affected by how the value is stored on the device, such as the value's byte order. Rather, it is a property of the nu ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

GF(2)
(also denoted \mathbb F_2, or \mathbb Z/2\mathbb Z) is the finite field of two elements (GF is the initialism of ''Galois field'', another name for finite fields). Notations and \mathbb Z_2 may be encountered although they can be confused with the notation of adic integers. is the field with the smallest possible number of elements, and is unique if the additive identity and the multiplicative identity are denoted respectively and , as usual. The elements of may be identified with the two possible values of a bit and to the boolean values ''true'' and ''false''. It follows that is fundamental and ubiquitous in computer science and its logical foundations. Definition GF(2) is the unique field with two elements with its additive and multiplicative identities respectively denoted and . Its addition is defined as the usual addition of integers but modulo 2 and corresponds to the table below: If the elements of GF(2) are seen as boolean values, then the addition ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Galois Field
In mathematics, a finite field or Galois field (sonamed in honor of Évariste Galois) is a field that contains a finite number of elements. As with any field, a finite field is a set on which the operations of multiplication, addition, subtraction and division are defined and satisfy certain basic rules. The most common examples of finite fields are given by the integers mod when is a prime number. The ''order'' of a finite field is its number of elements, which is either a prime number or a prime power. For every prime number and every positive integer there are fields of order p^k, all of which are isomorphic. Finite fields are fundamental in a number of areas of mathematics and computer science, including number theory, algebraic geometry, Galois theory, finite geometry, cryptography and coding theory. Properties A finite field is a finite set which is a field; this means that multiplication, addition, subtraction and division (excluding division by zero) are ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Finite Field
In mathematics, a finite field or Galois field (sonamed in honor of Évariste Galois) is a field that contains a finite number of elements. As with any field, a finite field is a set on which the operations of multiplication, addition, subtraction and division are defined and satisfy certain basic rules. The most common examples of finite fields are given by the integers mod when is a prime number. The ''order'' of a finite field is its number of elements, which is either a prime number or a prime power. For every prime number and every positive integer there are fields of order p^k, all of which are isomorphic. Finite fields are fundamental in a number of areas of mathematics and computer science, including number theory, algebraic geometry, Galois theory, finite geometry, cryptography and coding theory. Properties A finite field is a finite set which is a field; this means that multiplication, addition, subtraction and division (excluding division by zero ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Coefficient
In mathematics, a coefficient is a multiplicative factor in some term of a polynomial, a series, or an expression; it is usually a number, but may be any expression (including variables such as , and ). When the coefficients are themselves variables, they may also be called parameters. For example, the polynomial 2x^2x+3 has coefficients 2, −1, and 3, and the powers of the variable x in the polynomial ax^2+bx+c have coefficient parameters a, b, and c. The constant coefficient is the coefficient not attached to variables in an expression. For example, the constant coefficients of the expressions above are the number 3 and the parameter ''c'', respectively. The coefficient attached to the highest degree of the variable in a polynomial is referred to as the leading coefficient. For example, in the expressions above, the leading coefficients are 2 and ''a'', respectively. Terminology and definition In mathematics, a coefficient is a multiplicative factor in some term ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Remainder
In mathematics, the remainder is the amount "left over" after performing some computation. In arithmetic, the remainder is the integer "left over" after dividing one integer by another to produce an integer quotient ( integer division). In algebra of polynomials, the remainder is the polynomial "left over" after dividing one polynomial by another. The ''modulo operation'' is the operation that produces such a remainder when given a dividend and divisor. Alternatively, a remainder is also what is left after subtracting one number from another, although this is more precisely called the ''difference''. This usage can be found in some elementary textbooks; colloquially it is replaced by the expression "the rest" as in "Give me two dollars back and keep the rest." However, the term "remainder" is still used in this sense when a function is approximated by a series expansion, where the error expression ("the rest") is referred to as the remainder term. Integer division Given an i ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Quotient
In arithmetic, a quotient (from lat, quotiens 'how many times', pronounced ) is a quantity produced by the division of two numbers. The quotient has widespread use throughout mathematics, and is commonly referred to as the integer part of a division (in the case of Euclidean division), or as a fraction or a ratio (in the case of proper division). For example, when dividing 20 (the ''dividend'') by 3 (the ''divisor''), the ''quotient'' is "6 with a remainder of 2" in the Euclidean division sense, and 6\tfrac in the proper division sense. In the second sense, a quotient is simply the ratio of a dividend to its divisor. Notation The quotient is most frequently encountered as two numbers, or two variables, divided by a horizontal line. The words "dividend" and "divisor" refer to each individual part, while the word "quotient" refers to the whole. \dfrac \quad \begin & \leftarrow \text \\ & \leftarrow \text \end \Biggr \} \leftarrow \text Integer part definition The q ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 