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Curve
In mathematics, a curve (also called a curved line in older texts) is an object similar to a line, but that does not have to be straight. Intuitively, a curve may be thought of as the trace left by a moving point. This is the definition that appeared more than 2000 years ago in Euclid's ''Elements'': "The urvedline is ��the first species of quantity, which has only one dimension, namely length, without any width nor depth, and is nothing else than the flow or run of the point which ��will leave from its imaginary moving some vestige in length, exempt of any width." This definition of a curve has been formalized in modern mathematics as: ''A curve is the image of an interval to a topological space by a continuous function''. In some contexts, the function that defines the curve is called a ''parametrization'', and the curve is a parametric curve. In this article, these curves are sometimes called ''topological curves'' to distinguish them from more constrained curves such ...
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Plane Algebraic Curve
In mathematics, an affine algebraic plane curve is the zero set of a polynomial in two variables. A projective algebraic plane curve is the zero set in a projective plane of a homogeneous polynomial in three variables. An affine algebraic plane curve can be completed in a projective algebraic plane curve by homogenizing its defining polynomial. Conversely, a projective algebraic plane curve of homogeneous equation can be restricted to the affine algebraic plane curve of equation . These two operations are each inverse to the other; therefore, the phrase algebraic plane curve is often used without specifying explicitly whether it is the affine or the projective case that is considered. More generally, an algebraic curve is an algebraic variety of dimension one. Equivalently, an algebraic curve is an algebraic variety that is birationally equivalent to an algebraic plane curve. If the curve is contained in an affine space or a projective space, one can take a projection for such ...
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Algebraic Curve
In mathematics, an affine algebraic plane curve is the zero set of a polynomial in two variables. A projective algebraic plane curve is the zero set in a projective plane of a homogeneous polynomial in three variables. An affine algebraic plane curve can be completed in a projective algebraic plane curve by homogenizing its defining polynomial. Conversely, a projective algebraic plane curve of homogeneous equation can be restricted to the affine algebraic plane curve of equation . These two operations are each inverse to the other; therefore, the phrase algebraic plane curve is often used without specifying explicitly whether it is the affine or the projective case that is considered. More generally, an algebraic curve is an algebraic variety of dimension one. Equivalently, an algebraic curve is an algebraic variety that is birationally equivalent to an algebraic plane curve. If the curve is contained in an affine space or a projective space, one can take a projection for su ...
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Implicit Curve
In mathematics, an implicit curve is a plane curve defined by an implicit equation relating two coordinate variables, commonly ''x'' and ''y''. For example, the unit circle is defined by the implicit equation x^2+y^2=1. In general, every implicit curve is defined by an equation of the form : F(x,y)=0 for some function ''F'' of two variables. Hence an implicit curve can be considered as the set of zeros of a function of two variables. ''Implicit'' means that the equation is not expressed as a solution for either ''x'' in terms of ''y'' or vice versa. If F(x,y) is a polynomial in two variables, the corresponding curve is called an ''algebraic curve'', and specific methods are available for studying it. Plane curves can be represented in Cartesian coordinates (''x'', ''y'' coordinates) by any of three methods, one of which is the implicit equation given above. The graph of a function is usually described by an equation y=f(x) in which the functional form is explicitly stated; th ...
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Differentiable Curve
Differential geometry of curves is the branch of geometry that deals with smooth curves in the plane and the Euclidean space by methods of differential and integral calculus. Many specific curves have been thoroughly investigated using the synthetic approach. Differential geometry takes another path: curves are represented in a parametrized form, and their geometric properties and various quantities associated with them, such as the curvature and the arc length, are expressed via derivatives and integrals using vector calculus. One of the most important tools used to analyze a curve is the Frenet frame, a moving frame that provides a coordinate system at each point of the curve that is "best adapted" to the curve near that point. The theory of curves is much simpler and narrower in scope than the theory of surfaces and its higher-dimensional generalizations because a regular curve in a Euclidean space has no intrinsic geometry. Any regular curve may be parametrized by the ...
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Space-filling Curve
In mathematical analysis, a space-filling curve is a curve whose range contains the entire 2-dimensional unit square (or more generally an ''n''-dimensional unit hypercube). Because Giuseppe Peano (1858–1932) was the first to discover one, space-filling curves in the 2-dimensional plane are sometimes called ''Peano curves'', but that phrase also refers to the Peano curve, the specific example of a space-filling curve found by Peano. Definition Intuitively, a curve in two or three (or higher) dimensions can be thought of as the path of a continuously moving point. To eliminate the inherent vagueness of this notion, Jordan in 1887 introduced the following rigorous definition, which has since been adopted as the precise description of the notion of a ''curve'': In the most general form, the range of such a function may lie in an arbitrary topological space, but in the most commonly studied cases, the range will lie in a Euclidean space such as the 2-dimensional plane (a ...
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Algebraic Variety
Algebraic varieties are the central objects of study in algebraic geometry, a sub-field of mathematics. Classically, an algebraic variety is defined as the set of solutions of a system of polynomial equations over the real or complex numbers. Modern definitions generalize this concept in several different ways, while attempting to preserve the geometric intuition behind the original definition. Conventions regarding the definition of an algebraic variety differ slightly. For example, some definitions require an algebraic variety to be irreducible, which means that it is not the union of two smaller sets that are closed in the Zariski topology. Under this definition, non-irreducible algebraic varieties are called algebraic sets. Other conventions do not require irreducibility. The fundamental theorem of algebra establishes a link between algebra and geometry by showing that a monic polynomial (an algebraic object) in one variable with complex number coefficients is dete ...
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Parabola
In mathematics, a parabola is a plane curve which is mirror-symmetrical and is approximately U-shaped. It fits several superficially different mathematical descriptions, which can all be proved to define exactly the same curves. One description of a parabola involves a point (the focus) and a line (the directrix). The focus does not lie on the directrix. The parabola is the locus of points in that plane that are equidistant from both the directrix and the focus. Another description of a parabola is as a conic section, created from the intersection of a right circular conical surface and a plane parallel to another plane that is tangential to the conical surface. The line perpendicular to the directrix and passing through the focus (that is, the line that splits the parabola through the middle) is called the "axis of symmetry". The point where the parabola intersects its axis of symmetry is called the "vertex" and is the point where the parabola is most sharply curv ...
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Parametric Curve
In mathematics, a parametric equation defines a group of quantities as functions of one or more independent variables called parameters. Parametric equations are commonly used to express the coordinates of the points that make up a geometric object such as a curve or surface, in which case the equations are collectively called a parametric representation or parameterization (alternatively spelled as parametrisation) of the object. For example, the equations :\begin x &= \cos t \\ y &= \sin t \end form a parametric representation of the unit circle, where ''t'' is the parameter: A point (''x'', ''y'') is on the unit circle if and only if there is a value of ''t'' such that these two equations generate that point. Sometimes the parametric equations for the individual scalar output variables are combined into a single parametric equation in vectors: :(x, y)=(\cos t, \sin t). Parametric representations are generally nonunique (see the "Examples in two dimensions" section bel ...
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Fractal Curve
A fractal curve is, loosely, a mathematical curve whose shape retains the same general pattern of irregularity, regardless of how high it is magnified, that is, its graph takes the form of a fractal. In general, fractal curves are nowhere rectifiable curves — that is, they do not have finite length — and every subarc longer than a single point has infinite length. A famous example is the boundary of the Mandelbrot set. Fractal curves in nature Fractal curves and fractal patterns are widespread, in nature, found in such places as broccoli, snowflakes, feet of geckos, frost crystals, and lightning bolts. See also Romanesco broccoli, dendrite crystal, trees, fractals, Hofstadter's butterfly, Lichtenberg figure, and self-organized criticality. Dimensions of a fractal curve Most of us are used to mathematical curves having dimension one, but as a general rule, fractal curves have different dimensions, also see also fractal dimension and list of fractals by Hausdor ...
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Level Curve
In mathematics, a level set of a real-valued function of real variables is a set where the function takes on a given constant value , that is: : L_c(f) = \left\~, When the number of independent variables is two, a level set is called a level curve, also known as ''contour line'' or ''isoline''; so a level curve is the set of all real-valued solutions of an equation in two variables and . When , a level set is called a level surface (or ''isosurface''); so a level surface is the set of all real-valued roots of an equation in three variables , and . For higher values of , the level set is a level hypersurface, the set of all real-valued roots of an equation in variables. A level set is a special case of a fiber. Alternative names Level sets show up in many applications, often under different names. For example, an implicit curve is a level curve, which is considered independently of its neighbor curves, emphasizing that such a curve is defined by an implicit ...
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Real Algebraic Curve
In mathematics, real algebraic geometry is the sub-branch of algebraic geometry studying real algebraic sets, i.e. real-number solutions to algebraic equations with real-number coefficients, and mappings between them (in particular real polynomial mappings). Semialgebraic geometry is the study of semialgebraic sets, i.e. real-number solutions to algebraic inequalities with-real number coefficients, and mappings between them. The most natural mappings between semialgebraic sets are semialgebraic mappings, i.e., mappings whose graphs are semialgebraic sets. Terminology Nowadays the words 'semialgebraic geometry' and 'real algebraic geometry' are used as synonyms, because real algebraic sets cannot be studied seriously without the use of semialgebraic sets. For example, a projection of a real algebraic set along a coordinate axis need not be a real algebraic set, but it is always a semialgebraic set: this is the Tarski–Seidenberg theorem. Related fields are o-minimal theory ...
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Line (geometry)
In geometry, a line is an infinitely long object with no width, depth, or curvature. Thus, lines are one-dimensional objects, though they may exist in two, three, or higher dimension spaces. The word ''line'' may also refer to a line segment in everyday life, which has two points to denote its ends. Lines can be referred by two points that lay on it (e.g., \overleftrightarrow) or by a single letter (e.g., \ell). Euclid described a line as "breadthless length" which "lies evenly with respect to the points on itself"; he introduced several postulates as basic unprovable properties from which he constructed all of geometry, which is now called Euclidean geometry to avoid confusion with other geometries which have been introduced since the end of the 19th century (such as non-Euclidean, projective and affine geometry). In modern mathematics, given the multitude of geometries, the concept of a line is closely tied to the way the geometry is described. For instance, in analy ...
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