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Crocodylomorph
Crocodylomorpha is a group of Pseudosuchia, pseudosuchian archosaurs that includes the crocodilians and their extinct relatives. They were the only members of Pseudosuchia to survive the Triassic–Jurassic extinction event, end-Triassic extinction. During Mesozoic and early Cenozoic times, crocodylomorphs were far more diverse than they are now. Triassic forms were small, lightly built, active terrestrial animals. The earliest and most primitive crocodylomorphs are represented by "Sphenosuchia, sphenosuchians", a paraphyletic assemblage containing small-bodied forms that walked upright, which represents the ancestral morphology of Crocodylomorpha. During the Jurassic, Crocodylomorphs morphologically diversified into numerous niches, including into the aquatic and marine realms. Their conquest of the these realms may have helped them survive the K-Pg extinction event, like the turtles. This may have also caused the last of the temnospondyls to go extinct as the realms were previo ...
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Terrestrisuchus
''Terrestrisuchus'' is an extinct genus of very small early crocodylomorph that was about long. Fossils have been found in Wales and Southern England and date from near the very end of the Late Triassic during the Rhaetian, and it is known by type species, type and only known species ''T. gracilis''. ''Terrestrisuchus'' was a long-legged, active predator that lived entirely on land, unlike modern crocodilians. It inhabited a chain of tropical, low-lying islands that made up southern Great Britain, Britain, along with similarly small-sized dinosaurs and abundant rhynchocephalians. Numerous fossils of ''Terrestrisuchus'' are known from fissures in limestone karst which made up the islands it lived on, which formed caverns and sinkholes that preserved the remains of ''Terrestrisuchus'' and other island-living reptiles. Description ''Terrestrisuchus'' was a small, slender crocodylomorph with very long legs, quite unlike modern crocodilians. It was initially estimated to have been be ...
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Carnufex
''Carnufex'' is an extinct genus of crocodylomorph suchian from the Late Triassic of North America. The genus was first described in 2015 by Zanno ''et al.'', who named the Binomial nomenclature, binomial ''Carnufex carolinensis'', meaning "Carolina butcher". Two specimens are known, the holotype skull and skeleton NCSM 21558, and the referred humerus NCSM 21623. The specimens are from the Carnian-age Pekin Formation, which dates to 231 million years ago. Based on the holotype, ''Carnufex'' would have been about long and tall, although it may have gotten larger due to the holotype not being fully grown. Discovery NCSM 21558 was discovered in a red Fluvial processes, fluvial Conglomerate (geology), conglomerate belonging to the mid-upper portion Pekin Formation of North Carolina, which formed in the Carnian age of the Late Triassic, around 231 million years ago. This specimen was described in a 2015 ''Scientific Reports'' article by Lindsay Zanno, Lindsay E. Zanno, Susan Drymal ...
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Saltoposuchus
''Saltoposuchus'' is an extinct genus of small (1-1.5 m and 10-15 kg), long-tailed crocodylomorph reptile (Sphenosuchia), from the Norian (Late Triassic) of Europe. The name translated means "leaping foot crocodile". It has been proposed that ''Terrestrisuchus gracilis'' and ''Saltoposuchus connectens'' represent different ontogenetic stages of the same genus. ''Saltoposuchus'' was commonly (and incorrectly) referred to in popular literature as the ancestor (or close ancestors) to dinosaurs, however, recent scientific research show that this is not the case. Description and Paleobiology Fossil evidence of Sphenosuchia and early crocodylomorphs lead paleontologists to conclude that ''Saltoposuchus'' is a terrestrial animal. As a monophyletic group of crocodylomorphs, Saltoposuchidae have many key morphological traits shared with most crocodylomorphs. Skull Much like other crocodylomorphs, ''Saltoposuchus'' skulls had a (reduced) antorbital fenestra, an overhanging squa ...
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Litargosuchus
''Litargosuchus'' is a sphenosuchian Crocodylomorpha, crocodylomorph, a Basal (phylogenetics), basal member of the Crocodylomorpha, crocodylomorph clade from the Early Jurassic of South Africa. Its genus name ''Litargosuchus'' is derived from Greek meaning "fast running crocodile" and its species name ''leptorhynchus'' refers to its Gracility, gracile snout. ''Litargosuchus'', along with all of South Africa's Crocodylomorpha, crocodylomorph Taxon, taxa, are confined to the upper Elliot Formation (UEF) in South Africa. History of Discovery In 1988 James Kitching found the holotype fossil of ''Litargosuchus'' in a field expedition in Eagles Crag, a farm near Barkly East in the Eastern Cape. The material recovered consisted of a near-complete skull with its mandible and several bones belonging to the postcranial skeleton. At the time, James Kitching, Kitching was the director of the Evolutionary Studies Institute (previously the Bernard Price Institute) of the University of the Witw ...
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Archosaur
Archosauria ("ruling reptiles") is a clade A clade (), also known as a monophyletic group or natural group, is a group of organisms that are monophyly, monophyletic – that is, composed of a common ancestor and all its lineage (evolution), lineal descendants - on a phylogenetic tree. R ... of diapsid Diapsids ("two arches") are a group of amniote tetrapods that developed two holes (temporal fenestra) in each side of their skulls about 300 million years ago during the late Carboniferous period. The diapsids are extremely diverse, and include all ...s, with birds Birds are a group of s constituting the Aves , characterised by s, toothless beaked jaws, the of eggs, a high rate, a four-chambered , and a strong yet lightweight . Birds live worldwide and range in size from the to the . There ar ... and crocodilian Crocodilia (or Crocodylia, both ) is an Order (biology), order of mostly large, predatory, List of semiaquatic tetrapods, semiaquatic reptiles, know ...
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Sphenosuchus
''Sphenosuchus'' ("wedge crocodile") is an extinct genus of crocodylomorph from the Early Jurassic Elliot Formation of South Africa, discovered and described early in the 20th century. The skull is preserved very well but other than elements of the forelimb and isolated parts of the hind limb, the ''Sphenosuchus'' material is incomplete. It was probably quadrupedal, but may have been a facultative biped. ''Sphenosuchus'' was first thoroughly described in 1972 by the British palaeontologist Alick Walker, in a paper in the journal ''Nature''. Walker suggested, based on detailed (but still preliminary at that time) studies of the skull of ''Sphenosuchus'' and modern birds, that crocodylomorphs and birds might share an immediate common ancestor. Walker recanted his hypothesis in 1985, but restated and elaborated on it (in essence 'de-recanting') in a monograph published in 1990, which provided the most comprehensive description and discussion of ''Sphenosuchus'' yet published. Broom ...
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Thalattosuchia
Thalattosuchia is the name given to a clade A clade (), also known as a monophyletic group or natural group, is a group of organisms that are monophyly, monophyletic – that is, composed of a common ancestor and all its lineage (evolution), lineal descendants - on a phylogenetic tree. R ... of marine crocodylomorph Crocodylomorpha is a group of archosaur Archosauria ("ruling reptiles") is a clade of diapsids, with birds and crocodilians as the only living representatives. Archosaurs are broadly classified as reptiles, in the cladistic sense of term which i ...s from the Early Jurassic The Jurassic ( ) is a geologic period The geologic time scale (GTS) is a system of chronological dating that classifies Geology, geological strata (stratigraphy) in time. It is used by geologists, paleontology, paleontologists, and other earth ... to the Early Cretaceous The Cretaceous ( ) is a geological period A geological period is one of the several subdivisions of geologic time ...
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Pseudosuchia
Pseudosuchia is one of two major divisions of Archosauria, including living crocodilian Crocodilia (or Crocodylia, both ) is an Order (biology), order of mostly large, predatory, List of semiaquatic tetrapods, semiaquatic reptiles, known as crocodilians. They first appeared 95 million years ago in the Late Cretaceous Period (g ...s and all archosaurs more closely related to crocodilians than to birds. Pseudosuchians are also informally known as "crocodilian-line archosaurs". Prior to 2011, the clade A clade (), also known as a monophyletic group or natural group, is a group of organisms that are monophyly, monophyletic – that is, composed of a common ancestor and all its lineage (evolution), lineal descendants - on a phylogenetic tree. R ... Pseudosuchia was often called Crurotarsi in reference to the crurotarsalA crurotarsal joint is one that’s situated between the bones of '' crus'', i.e. shin (tibia The tibia (plural tibiae or tibias), also known as the s ...
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Syntomiprosopus
''Syntomiprosopus'' (meaning "short face") is an extinct genus of archosauriform, possibly a crocodylomorph from the Late Triassic Period (geology), period of Arizona. The type species, type and only known species is ''S. sucherorum''. ''Syntomiprosopus'' was unusually short-snouted, comparable to the Late Cretaceous notosuchian ''Simosuchus'', and is regarded as an example of convergent evolution between Triassic stem-archosaurs and Cretaceous archosaurs. Discovery and naming Fossils of ''Syntomiprosopus'' were discovered at a locality in the Downs' Quarry located in eastern Arizona, just above the "''Placerias'' Quarry" and just below the principal horizon of the Downs' Quarry. The fossils were recovered during joint excavations by the North Carolina Museum of Natural Sciences (NCSM) and Appalachian State University (ASU) between 2013 and 2015 as part of a series of excavations that had begun in 2010. The quarry is part of the expansive Late Triassic Chinle Formation, and has ...
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Shartegosuchidae
Shartegosuchidae is an extinct family (biology), family of Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous crocodylomorphs. The family is named after the Late Jurassic Shar Teeg Beds in southwestern Mongolia, from which most shartegosuchid remains have been found. Five genera are currently assigned to Shartegosuchidae: ''Shartegosuchus'', ''Nominosuchus'', ''Kyasuchus'', ''Adzhosuchus'', and ''Fruitachampsa''. ''Shartegosuchus'', ''Nominosuchus'', and ''Adzhosuchus'' all come from Shar Teeg, while ''Kyasuchus'' is known from the Early Cretaceous of Russia. ''Fruitachampsa'' is known from the Late Jurassic Morrison Formation of the western United States. Description Shartegosuchids are known only from cranial material, or parts of the skull and some partial skeletons. Shartegosuchids share several distinct characteristics in the skull. On the palate, the choanae (holes where the nasal cavity opens into the mouth) is placed within a deep depression of its midline. The palatal bones, located beh ...
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Pseudhesperosuchus
''Pseudhesperosuchus'' (meaning "false ''Hesperosuchus''") is a genus of sphenosuchian, a type of basal (phylogenetics), basal crocodylomorpha, crocodylomorph, the Cladistics, clade that comprises the crocodilians and their closest kin. It is known from a partial skeleton and skull found in rocks of the Late Triassic (Norian-age) Los Colorados Formation of the Ischigualasto-Villa Unión Basin in northwestern Argentina. History and description ''Pseudhesperosuchus'' is holotype, based on Fundación–Instituto Miguel Lillo, PVL 3830. This specimen consists of a skull and lower jaws, most of the vertebral column, the pectoral girdle, shoulder girdle, and parts of the arms and legs. The genus was named by José Bonaparte in 1969. The type species is ''P. jachaleri''. The skull, though nearly complete, is poorly preserved, and some of its bones and sutures have been misidentified over the years. A 2002 cladistics, phylogenetic analysis of sphenosuchians performed by James Cl ...
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Trialestes
''Trialestes'' is an extinct genus of Late Triassic (Carnian) crocodylomorpha, crocodylomorphs that lived in South America. It has been classified as a dinosaur in the past due it being adapted as a terrestrial, running carnivore. It is classified in Sphenosuchia, which were early relatives of crocodylians. Irmis, Nesbitt and Sues (2013) noted that some of the material referred to this taxon is actually dinosaurian; however, according to the authors, the holotype specimen PVL 2561, found in the Cancha de Bochas Member of the Ischigualasto Formation in the Ischigualasto-Villa Unión Basin in northwestern Argentina, "comprises a single individual that preserves unambiguous crocodylomorph synapomorphies", indicating it is indeed a crocodylomorph, and one of the referred specimens, PVL 3889, does share one or more autapomorphies with the holotype, indicating it represents the same taxon. The type species, ''T. romeri'', was named in 1963.O. A. Reig. 1963. La presencia de dinosaurios s ...
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