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Credence Good
Economists and marketers use of the Search, Experience, Credence (SEC) classification of goods and services, which is based on the ease or difficulty with which consumers can evaluate or obtain information. These days most economics and marketers treat the three classes of goods as a continuum. Archetypal goods are: *Search goods: those with attributes that can be evaluated prior to purchase or consumption. Consumers rely on prior experience, direct product inspection and other information search activities to locate information that assists in the evaluation process. Most products fall into the search goods category (e.g. clothing, office stationery, home furnishings). *Experience goods: those that can be accurately evaluated only after the product has been purchased and experienced. Many personal services fall into this category (e.g. restaurant, hairdresser, beauty salon, theme park, travel, holiday). *Credence goods: those that are difficult or impossible to evaluate even after co ...
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Philip Nelson (professor)
Phillip Jacob Nelson (born 1929) is an emeritus professor at Binghamton University, where he was Bartle Professor of Economics. He is noted for having been the first to observe the distinction between an experience good and a search good. Nelson obtained his doctorate in 1957 from Columbia University Columbia University (also known as Columbia, and officially as Columbia University in the City of New York) is a private research university in New York City. Established in 1754 as King's College on the grounds of Trinity Church in Manhatt ..., with a dissertation titled "A Study in the Geographic Mobility of Labor". Selected publications ;Research articles * * ;Books *.. References External links * Living people 1929 births American economists Columbia University alumni Binghamton University faculty {{US-economist-stub ...
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Plumbing
Plumbing is any system that conveys fluids for a wide range of applications. Plumbing uses pipes, valves, plumbing fixtures, tanks, and other apparatuses to convey fluids. Heating and cooling (HVAC), waste removal, and potable water delivery are among the most common uses for plumbing, but it is not limited to these applications. The word derives from the Latin for lead, ''plumbum'', as the first effective pipes used in the Roman era were lead pipes. In the developed world, plumbing infrastructure is critical to public health and sanitation. Boilermakers and pipefitters are not plumbers although they work with piping as part of their trade and their work can include some plumbing. History Plumbing originated during ancient civilizations, as they developed public baths and needed to provide potable water and wastewater removal for larger numbers of people. The Mesopotamians introduced the world to clay sewer pipes around 4000 BCE, with the earliest examples f ...
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The American Economic Review
The ''American Economic Review'' is a monthly peer-reviewed academic journal published by the American Economic Association. First published in 1911, it is considered one of the most prestigious and highly distinguished journals in the field of economics. The current editor-in-chief is Esther Duflo, an economic professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The journal is based in Pittsburgh. In 2004, the ''American Economic Review'' began requiring "data and code sufficient to permit replication" of a paper's results, which is then posted on the journal's website. Exceptions are made for proprietary data. Until 2017, the May issue of the ''American Economic Review'', titled the ''Papers and Proceedings'' issue, featured the papers presented at the American Economic Association's annual meeting that January. After being selected for presentation, the papers in the ''Papers and Proceedings'' issue did not undergo a formal process of peer review. Starting in 2018, papers pr ...
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Review Of Economic Studies
''The Review of Economic Studies'' (also known as ''REStud'') is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal covering economics. It was established in 1933 by a group of economists based in Britain and the United States. The original editorial team consisted of Abba P. Lerner, Paul Sweezy, and Ursula Kathleen Hicks. It is published by Oxford University Press. The journal is widely considered one of the top 5 journals in economics. It is managed by the editorial board currently chaired by Nicola Fuchs-Schündeln (Goethe University Frankfurt). The current joint managing editors are Thomas Chaney (Sciences Po), Andrea Galeotti (London Business School), Nicola Gennaioli (Bocconi University), Veronica Guerrieri (University of Chicago), Kurt Mitman ( Institute for International Economic Studies, Stockholm University), Francesca Molinari (Cornell University), Uta Schönberg (University College London), and Adam Szeidl (Central European University). According to the ''Journal Citation Rep ...
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Journal Of Political Economy
The ''Journal of Political Economy'' is a monthly peer-reviewed academic journal published by the University of Chicago Press. Established by James Laurence Laughlin in 1892, it covers both theoretical and empirical economics. In the past, the journal published quarterly from its introduction through 1905, ten issues per volume from 1906 through 1921, and bimonthly from 1922 through 2019. The editor-in-chief is Magne Mogstad ( University of Chicago). It is considered one of the top five journals in economics. Abstracting and indexing The journal is abstracted and indexed in EBSCO, ProQuest, EconLit , Research Papers in Economics, Current Contents/Social & Behavioral Sciences, and the Social Sciences Citation Index. According to the ''Journal Citation Reports'', the journal has a 2020 impact factor of 9.103, ranking it 4/376 journals in the category "Economics". The journal is department-owned University of Chicago journal. Notable papers Among the most influential pa ...
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American Economic Review
The ''American Economic Review'' is a monthly peer-reviewed academic journal published by the American Economic Association. First published in 1911, it is considered one of the most prestigious and highly distinguished journals in the field of economics. The current editor-in-chief is Esther Duflo, an economic professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The journal is based in Pittsburgh. In 2004, the ''American Economic Review'' began requiring "data and code sufficient to permit replication" of a paper's results, which is then posted on the journal's website. Exceptions are made for proprietary data. Until 2017, the May issue of the ''American Economic Review'', titled the ''Papers and Proceedings'' issue, featured the papers presented at the American Economic Association's annual meeting that January. After being selected for presentation, the papers in the ''Papers and Proceedings'' issue did not undergo a formal process of peer review. Starting in 2018, papers ...
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Journal Of Economic Literature
The ''Journal of Economic Literature'' is a peer-reviewed academic journal, published by the American Economic Association, that surveys the academic literature in economics. It was established in 1963 as the ''Journal of Economic Abstracts'',Journal of Economic Literature: About JEL
retrieved 6 May 2011.
and is currently one of the highest ranked journals in economics.
/ref> As a review journal, it mainly features essays and reviews of recent economic theories (as opposed to the latest research). The

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The Economist
''The Economist'' is a British weekly newspaper printed in demitab format and published digitally. It focuses on current affairs, international business, politics, technology, and culture. Based in London, the newspaper is owned by The Economist Group, with its core editorial offices in the United States, as well as across major cities in continental Europe, Asia, and the Middle East. In 2019, its average global print circulation was over 909,476; this, combined with its digital presence, runs to over 1.6 million. Across its social media platforms, it reaches an audience of 35 million, as of 2016. The newspaper has a prominent focus on data journalism and interpretive analysis over original reporting, to both criticism and acclaim. Founded in 1843, ''The Economist'' was first circulated by Scottish economist James Wilson to muster support for abolishing the British Corn Laws (1815–1846), a system of import tariffs. Over time, the newspaper's coverage expanded further ...
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Competitive
Competition is a rivalry where two or more parties strive for a common goal which cannot be shared: where one's gain is the other's loss (an example of which is a zero-sum game). Competition can arise between entities such as organisms, individuals, economic and social groups, etc. The rivalry can be over attainment of any exclusive goal, including recognition: Competition occurs in nature, between living organisms which co-exist in the same environment. Animals compete over water supplies, food, mates, and other biological resources. Humans usually compete for food and mates, though when these needs are met deep rivalries often arise over the pursuit of wealth, power, prestige, and fame when in a static, repetitive, or unchanging environment. Competition is a major tenet of market economies and business, often associated with business competition as companies are in competition with at least one other firm over the same group of customers. Competition inside a company is u ...
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Flat Rate
A flat fee, also referred to as a flat rate or a linear rate refers to a pricing structure that charges a single fixed fee for a service, regardless of usage. Less commonly, the term may refer to a rate that does not vary with usage or time of use. Advantages * A business can develop a dependable stance in a market, as consumers have a well-rounded price before the service is undertaken. For instance, a technician may charge $150 for his labor. * Potential costs can be covered. The service may result in inevitable expenses like the parts needed to fix the issue or the items required to complete the order. * No restricted structure is needed, as the pricing system can be adjusted to suit the business using it. Management can thus work out the pricing that best matches the company's objectives, efforts, costs, etc. Disadvantages * The fixed pricing restricts the company's capability to meet the needs of individual consumers, and people search for cheaper alternatives. * Pricing ...
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The RAND Journal Of Economics
''The RAND Journal of Economics'' (usually called ''RAND Journal'' or simply ''Rand'' ) is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal of economics published by Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of the RAND Corporation. It publishes theoretical and empirical papers on industrial organization and related topics. According to the ''Journal Citation Reports'', the journal has a 2020 impact factor of 1.986. History The journal was established in 1970 by AT&T's Bell Labs economics group as ''The Bell Journal of Economics and Management Science''. From 1975 to 1983 it was titled ''The Bell Journal of Economics''. In 1984, after transfer to the RAND Corporation The RAND Corporation (from the phrase "research and development") is an American nonprofit global policy think tank created in 1948 by Douglas Aircraft Company to offer research and analysis to the United States Armed Forces. It is finance ..., it acquired its present name. See also * List of economics journals References Exte ...
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Veblen Good
A Veblen good is a type of luxury goods, luxury good for which the demand increases as the price increases, in apparent (but not actual) contradiction of the law of demand, resulting in an upward-sloping demand curve. The higher prices of Veblen goods may make them desirable as a status symbol in the practices of conspicuous consumption and conspicuous leisure. A product may be a Veblen good because it is a positional good, something few others can own. Background Veblen goods are named after American economist Thorstein Veblen, who first identified conspicuous consumption as a mode of social status, status-seeking (i.e., keeping up with the Joneses) in ''The Theory of the Leisure Class'' (1899). The testability of this theory was questioned by Colin Campbell due to the lack of complete honesty from research participants. However, research in 2007 studying the effect of social comparison on human brains can be used as an evidence supporting Veblen. The idea that seeking status ...
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