Coulomb
The coulomb (symbol: C) is the unit of electric charge in the International System of Units (SI). In the present version of the SI it is equal to the electric charge delivered by a 1 ampere constant current in 1 second and to elementary charges, , (about ). Name and history By 1878, the British Association for the Advancement of Science had defined the volt, ohm, and farad, but not the coulomb. In 1881, the International Electrical Congress, now the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), approved the volt as the unit for electromotive force, the ampere as the unit for electric current, and the coulomb as the unit of electric charge. At that time, the volt was defined as the potential difference .e., what is nowadays called the "voltage (difference)"across a conductor when a current of one ampere dissipates one watt of power. The coulomb (later "absolute coulomb" or "abcoulomb" for disambiguation) was part of the EMU system of units. The "international coulo ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

CharlesAugustin De Coulomb
CharlesAugustin de Coulomb (; ; 14 June 1736 – 23 August 1806) was a French officer, engineer, and physicist. He is best known as the eponymous discoverer of what is now called Coulomb's law, the description of the electrostatic force of attraction and repulsion. He also did important work on friction. The SI unit of electric charge, the coulomb, was named in his honor in 1880. Life CharlesAugustin de Coulomb was born in Angoulême, Angoumois county, France, to Henry Coulomb, an inspector of the royal demesne originally from Montpellier, and Catherine Bajet. He was baptised at the parish church of St. André. The family moved to Paris early in his childhood, and he studied at Collège Mazarin. His studies included philosophy, language and literature. He also received a good education in mathematics, astronomy, chemistry and botany. When his father suffered a financial setback, he was forced to leave Paris, and went to Montpellier. Coulomb submitted his first publication t ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Centimetre–gram–second System Of Units
The centimetre–gram–second system of units (abbreviated CGS or cgs) is a variant of the metric system based on the centimetre as the unit of length, the gram as the unit of mass, and the second as the unit of time. All CGS mechanical units are unambiguously derived from these three base units, but there are several different ways in which the CGS system was extended to cover electromagnetism. The CGS system has been largely supplanted by the MKS system based on the metre, kilogram, and second, which was in turn extended and replaced by the International System of Units (SI). In many fields of science and engineering, SI is the only system of units in use, but there remain certain subfields where CGS is prevalent. In measurements of purely mechanical systems (involving units of length, mass, force, energy, pressure, and so on), the differences between CGS and SI are straightforward and rather trivial; the unitconversion factors are all powers of 10 as and . For example, t ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Electric Charge
Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes charged matter to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field. Electric charge can be ''positive'' or ''negative'' (commonly carried by protons and electrons respectively). Like charges repel each other and unlike charges attract each other. An object with an absence of net charge is referred to as neutral. Early knowledge of how charged substances interact is now called classical electrodynamics, and is still accurate for problems that do not require consideration of quantum effects. Electric charge is a conserved property; the net charge of an isolated system, the amount of positive charge minus the amount of negative charge, cannot change. Electric charge is carried by subatomic particles. In ordinary matter, negative charge is carried by electrons, and positive charge is carried by the protons in the nuclei of atoms. If there are more electrons than protons in a piece of matter, it will ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Statcoulomb
The franklin (Fr) or statcoulomb (statC) electrostatic unit of charge (esu) is the physical unit for electrical charge used in the cgsesu and Gaussian units. It is a derived unit given by : 1 statC = 1 dyn1/2⋅cm = 1 cm3/2⋅g1/2⋅s−1. That is, it is defined so that the Coulomb constant becomes a dimensionless quantity equal to 1. It can be converted using : 1 newton = 105 dyne : 1 cm = 10−2 m The SI system of units uses the coulomb (C) instead. The conversion between C and statC is different in different contexts. The most common contexts are: * For electric charge: *: 1 C ≘ ≈ *: ⇒ 1 statC ≘ ~. * For electric flux (ΦD): *: 1 C ≘ 4π × ≈ *: ⇒ 1 statC ≘ ~. The symbol "≘" ('corresponds to') is used instead of "=" because the two sides are not interchangeable, as discussed below. The number is 10 times the numeric value of the speed of light expressed in meters/second, and the conversions are ''exac ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Hartree Atomic Units
The Hartree atomic units are a system of natural units of measurement which is especially convenient for atomic physics and computational chemistry calculations. They are named after the physicist Douglas Hartree. By definition, the following four fundamental physical constants may each be expressed as the numeric value 1 multiplied by a coherent unit of this system: * Reduced Planck constant: \hbar, also known as the atomic unit of action * Elementary charge: e, also known as the atomic unit of charge * Bohr radius: a_0, also known as the atomic unit of length * Electron mass: m_\text, also known as the atomic unit of mass Atomic units are often abbreviated "a.u." or "au", not to be confused with the same abbreviation used also for astronomical units, arbitrary units, and absorbance units in other contexts. Defining constants Each unit in this system can be expressed as a product of powers of four physical constants without a multiplying constant. This makes it a coherent sys ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

2019 Redefinition Of The SI Base Units
In 2019, four of the seven SI base units specified in the International System of Quantities were redefined in terms of natural physical constants, rather than human artifacts such as the standard kilogram. Effective 20 May 2019, the 144th anniversary of the Metre Convention, the kilogram, ampere, kelvin, and mole are now defined by setting exact numerical values, when expressed in SI units, for the Planck constant ('), the elementary electric charge ('), the Boltzmann constant (), and the Avogadro constant (), respectively. The second, metre, and candela had previously been redefined using physical constants. The four new definitions aimed to improve the SI without changing the value of any units, ensuring continuity with existing measurements. In November 2018, the 26th General Conference on Weights and Measures (CGPM) unanimously approved these changes, The conference ran from 13–16 November and the vote on the redefinition was scheduled for the last day. Kazakhsta ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

2019 Redefinition Of SI Base Units
In 2019, four of the seven SI base units specified in the International System of Quantities were redefined in terms of natural physical constants, rather than human artifacts such as the standard kilogram. Effective 20 May 2019, the 144th anniversary of the Metre Convention, the kilogram, ampere, kelvin, and mole are now defined by setting exact numerical values, when expressed in SI units, for the Planck constant ('), the elementary electric charge ('), the Boltzmann constant (), and the Avogadro constant (), respectively. The second, metre, and candela had previously been redefined using physical constants. The four new definitions aimed to improve the SI without changing the value of any units, ensuring continuity with existing measurements. In November 2018, the 26th General Conference on Weights and Measures (CGPM) unanimously approved these changes, The conference ran from 13–16 November and the vote on the redefinition was scheduled for the last day. ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

International System Of Units
The International System of Units, known by the international abbreviation SI in all languages and sometimes pleonastically as the SI system, is the modern form of the metric system and the world's most widely used system of measurement. Established and maintained by the General Conference on Weights and Measures (CGPM), it is the only system of measurement with an official status in nearly every country in the world, employed in science, technology, industry, and everyday commerce. The SI comprises a coherent system of units of measurement starting with seven base units, which are the second (symbol s, the unit of time), metre (m, length), kilogram (kg, mass), ampere (A, electric current), kelvin (K, thermodynamic temperature), mole (mol, amount of substance), and candela (cd, luminous intensity). The system can accommodate coherent units for an unlimited number of additional quantities. These are called coherent derived units, which can always be represented ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Capacitor
A capacitor is a device that stores electrical energy in an electric field by virtue of accumulating electric charges on two close surfaces insulated from each other. It is a passive electronic component with two terminals. The effect of a capacitor is known as capacitance. While some capacitance exists between any two electrical conductors in proximity in a circuit, a capacitor is a component designed to add capacitance to a circuit. The capacitor was originally known as the condenser, a term still encountered in a few compound names, such as the '' condenser microphone''. The physical form and construction of practical capacitors vary widely and many types of capacitor are in common use. Most capacitors contain at least two electrical conductors often in the form of metallic plates or surfaces separated by a dielectric medium. A conductor may be a foil, thin film, sintered bead of metal, or an electrolyte. The nonconducting dielectric acts to increase the capacito ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Farad
The farad (symbol: F) is the unit of electrical capacitance, the ability of a body to store an electrical charge, in the International System of Units (SI). It is named after the English physicist Michael Faraday (1791–1867). In SI base units 1 F = 1 kg−1⋅ m−2⋅ s4⋅ A2. Definition The capacitance of a capacitor is one farad when one coulomb of charge changes the potential between the plates by one volt. Equally, one farad can be described as the capacitance which stores a onecoulomb charge across a potential difference of one volt. The relationship between capacitance, charge, and potential difference is linear. For example, if the potential difference across a capacitor is halved, the quantity of charge stored by that capacitor will also be halved. For most applications, the farad is an impractically large unit of capacitance. Most electrical and electronic applications are covered by the following SI prefixes: *1 mF (millifarad, one thousandth ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Volt
The volt (symbol: V) is the unit of electric potential, electric potential difference (voltage), and electromotive force in the International System of Units (SI). It is named after the Italian physicist Alessandro Volta (1745–1827). Definition One volt is defined as the electric potential between two points of a conducting wire when an electric current of one ampere dissipates one watt of power between those points. Equivalently, it is the potential difference between two points that will impart one joule of energy per coulomb of charge that passes through it. It can be expressed in terms of SI base units ( m, kg, s, and A) as : \text = \frac = \frac = \frac. It can also be expressed as amperes times ohms (current times resistance, Ohm's law), webers per second (magnetic flux per time), watts per ampere (power per current), or joules per coulomb (energy per charge), which is also equivalent to electronvolts per elementary charge: : \text = \text\Omega = \fra ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Faraday Constant
In physical chemistry, the Faraday constant, denoted by the symbol and sometimes stylized as ℱ, is the electric charge per mole of elementary charges. It is named after the English scientist Michael Faraday. Since the 2019 redefinition of SI base units, which took effect on 20 May 2019, the Faraday constant has the exactly defined value given by the product of the elementary charge ''e'' and Avogadro constant ''N''A: : : :. Derivation The Faraday constant can be thought of as the conversion factor between the mole (used in chemistry) and the coulomb (used in physics and in practical electrical measurements), and is therefore of particular use in electrochemistry. Because 1 mole contains exactly entities, and 1 coulomb contains exactly elementary charges, the Faraday constant is given by the quotient of these two quantities: :. One common use of the Faraday constant is in electrolysis calculations. One can divide the amount of charge (the current integrated over tim ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 