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Constant Function
In mathematics, a constant function is a function whose (output) value is the same for every input value. For example, the function is a constant function because the value of is 4 regardless of the input value (see image). Basic properties As a real-valued function of a real-valued argument, a constant function has the general form or just :Example: The function or just is the specific constant function where the output value is The domain of this function is the set of all real numbers R. The codomain of this function is just . The independent variable ''x'' does not appear on the right side of the function expression and so its value is "vacuously substituted". Namely and so on. No matter what value of ''x'' is input, the output is "2". :Real-world example: A store where every item is sold for the price of 1 dollar. The graph of the constant function is a horizontal line in the plane that passes through the point In the context of a polynomial in one varia ...
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Wiki Constant Function 175 200
A wiki ( ) is an online hypertext publication collaboratively edited and managed by its own audience, using a web browser. A typical wiki contains multiple pages for the subjects or scope of the project, and could be either open to the public or limited to use within an organization for maintaining its internal knowledge base. Wikis are enabled by wiki software, otherwise known as wiki engines. A wiki engine, being a form of a content management system, differs from other web-based systems such as blog software, in that the content is created without any defined owner or leader, and wikis have little inherent structure, allowing structure to emerge according to the needs of the users. Wiki engines usually allow content to be written using a simplified markup language and sometimes edited with the help of a rich-text editor. There are dozens of different wiki engines in use, both standalone and part of other software, such as bug tracking systems. Some wiki engines are ope ...
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Idempotent
Idempotence (, ) is the property of certain operations in mathematics and computer science whereby they can be applied multiple times without changing the result beyond the initial application. The concept of idempotence arises in a number of places in abstract algebra (in particular, in the theory of projectors and closure operators) and functional programming (in which it is connected to the property of referential transparency). The term was introduced by American mathematician Benjamin Peirce in 1870 in the context of elements of algebras that remain invariant when raised to a positive integer power, and literally means "(the quality of having) the same power", from + '' potence'' (same + power). Definition An element x of a set S equipped with a binary operator \cdot is said to be ''idempotent'' under \cdot if : . The ''binary operation'' \cdot is said to be ''idempotent'' if : . Examples * In the monoid (\mathbb, \times) of the natural numbers with multiplication, ...
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Ordered Pair
In mathematics, an ordered pair (''a'', ''b'') is a pair of objects. The order in which the objects appear in the pair is significant: the ordered pair (''a'', ''b'') is different from the ordered pair (''b'', ''a'') unless ''a'' = ''b''. (In contrast, the unordered pair equals the unordered pair .) Ordered pairs are also called 2-tuples, or sequences (sometimes, lists in a computer science context) of length 2. Ordered pairs of scalars are sometimes called 2-dimensional vectors. (Technically, this is an abuse of terminology since an ordered pair need not be an element of a vector space.) The entries of an ordered pair can be other ordered pairs, enabling the recursive definition of ordered ''n''-tuples (ordered lists of ''n'' objects). For example, the ordered triple (''a'',''b'',''c'') can be defined as (''a'', (''b'',''c'')), i.e., as one pair nested in another. In the ordered pair (''a'', ''b''), the object ''a'' is called the ''first entry'', and the object ''b'' the ...
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Natural Transformation
In category theory, a branch of mathematics, a natural transformation provides a way of transforming one functor into another while respecting the internal structure (i.e., the composition of morphisms) of the categories involved. Hence, a natural transformation can be considered to be a "morphism of functors". Informally, the notion of a natural transformation states that a particular map between functors can be done consistently over an entire category. Indeed, this intuition can be formalized to define so-called functor categories. Natural transformations are, after categories and functors, one of the most fundamental notions of category theory and consequently appear in the majority of its applications. Definition If F and G are functors between the categories C and D , then a natural transformation \eta from F to G is a family of morphisms that satisfies two requirements. # The natural transformation must associate, to every object X in C, a morphism \eta_X : F( ...
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Cartesian Product
In mathematics, specifically set theory, the Cartesian product of two sets ''A'' and ''B'', denoted ''A''×''B'', is the set of all ordered pairs where ''a'' is in ''A'' and ''b'' is in ''B''. In terms of set-builder notation, that is : A\times B = \. A table can be created by taking the Cartesian product of a set of rows and a set of columns. If the Cartesian product is taken, the cells of the table contain ordered pairs of the form . One can similarly define the Cartesian product of ''n'' sets, also known as an ''n''-fold Cartesian product, which can be represented by an ''n''-dimensional array, where each element is an ''n''- tuple. An ordered pair is a 2-tuple or couple. More generally still, one can define the Cartesian product of an indexed family of sets. The Cartesian product is named after René Descartes, whose formulation of analytic geometry gave rise to the concept, which is further generalized in terms of direct product. Examples A deck of cards A ...
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Closed Monoidal Category
In mathematics, especially in category theory, a closed monoidal category (or a ''monoidal closed category'') is a category that is both a monoidal category and a closed category in such a way that the structures are compatible. A classic example is the category of sets, Set, where the monoidal product of sets A and B is the usual cartesian product A \times B, and the internal Hom B^A is the set of functions from A to B. A non- cartesian example is the category of vector spaces, ''K''-Vect, over a field K. Here the monoidal product is the usual tensor product of vector spaces, and the internal Hom is the vector space of linear maps from one vector space to another. The internal language of closed symmetric monoidal categories is linear logic and the type system is the linear type system. Many examples of closed monoidal categories are symmetric. However, this need not always be the case, as non-symmetric monoidal categories can be encountered in category-theore ...
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Hom Set
In mathematics, particularly in category theory, a morphism is a structure-preserving map from one mathematical structure to another one of the same type. The notion of morphism recurs in much of contemporary mathematics. In set theory, morphisms are functions; in linear algebra, linear transformations; in group theory, group homomorphisms; in topology, continuous functions, and so on. In category theory, ''morphism'' is a broadly similar idea: the mathematical objects involved need not be sets, and the relationships between them may be something other than maps, although the morphisms between the objects of a given category have to behave similarly to maps in that they have to admit an associative operation similar to function composition. A morphism in category theory is an abstraction of a homomorphism. The study of morphisms and of the structures (called "objects") over which they are defined is central to category theory. Much of the terminology of morphisms, as well as the ...
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Generator (category Theory)
In mathematics, specifically category theory, a family of generators (or family of separators) of a category \mathcal C is a collection \mathcal G \subseteq Ob(\mathcal C) of objects in \mathcal C, such that for any two ''distinct'' morphisms f, g: X \to Y in \mathcal, that is with f \neq g, there is some G in \mathcal G and some morphism h : G \to X such that f \circ h \neq g \circ h. If the collection consists of a single object G, we say it is a generator (or separator). Generators are central to the definition of Grothendieck categories. The dual concept is called a cogenerator or coseparator. Examples * In the category of abelian groups, the group of integers \mathbf Z is a generator: If ''f'' and ''g'' are different, then there is an element x \in X, such that f(x) \neq g(x). Hence the map \mathbf Z \rightarrow X, n \mapsto n \cdot x suffices. * Similarly, the one-point set is a generator for the category of sets. In fact, any nonempty set is a generator. * In the cate ...
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Isomorphic
In mathematics, an isomorphism is a structure-preserving mapping between two structures of the same type that can be reversed by an inverse mapping. Two mathematical structures are isomorphic if an isomorphism exists between them. The word isomorphism is derived from the Ancient Greek: ἴσος ''isos'' "equal", and μορφή ''morphe'' "form" or "shape". The interest in isomorphisms lies in the fact that two isomorphic objects have the same properties (excluding further information such as additional structure or names of objects). Thus isomorphic structures cannot be distinguished from the point of view of structure only, and may be identified. In mathematical jargon, one says that two objects are . An automorphism is an isomorphism from a structure to itself. An isomorphism between two structures is a canonical isomorphism (a canonical map that is an isomorphism) if there is only one isomorphism between the two structures (as it is the case for solutions of a uni ...
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Category Of Sets
In the mathematical field of category theory, the category of sets, denoted as Set, is the category whose objects are sets. The arrows or morphisms between sets ''A'' and ''B'' are the total functions from ''A'' to ''B'', and the composition of morphisms is the composition of functions. Many other categories (such as the category of groups, with group homomorphisms as arrows) add structure to the objects of the category of sets and/or restrict the arrows to functions of a particular kind. Properties of the category of sets The axioms of a category are satisfied by Set because composition of functions is associative, and because every set ''X'' has an identity function id''X'' : ''X'' → ''X'' which serves as identity element for function composition. The epimorphisms in Set are the surjective maps, the monomorphisms are the injective maps, and the isomorphisms are the bijective maps. The empty set serves as the initial object in Set with empty functions as morphisms. ...
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Terminal Object
In category theory, a branch of mathematics, an initial object of a category is an object in such that for every object in , there exists precisely one morphism . The dual notion is that of a terminal object (also called terminal element): is terminal if for every object in there exists exactly one morphism . Initial objects are also called coterminal or universal, and terminal objects are also called final. If an object is both initial and terminal, it is called a zero object or null object. A pointed category is one with a zero object. A strict initial object is one for which every morphism into is an isomorphism. Examples * The empty set is the unique initial object in Set, the category of sets. Every one-element set ( singleton) is a terminal object in this category; there are no zero objects. Similarly, the empty space is the unique initial object in Top, the category of topological spaces and every one-point space is a terminal object in this category. * In ...
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Singleton (mathematics)
In mathematics, a singleton, also known as a unit set or one-point set, is a set with exactly one element. For example, the set \ is a singleton whose single element is 0. Properties Within the framework of Zermelo–Fraenkel set theory, the axiom of regularity guarantees that no set is an element of itself. This implies that a singleton is necessarily distinct from the element it contains, thus 1 and are not the same thing, and the empty set is distinct from the set containing only the empty set. A set such as \ is a singleton as it contains a single element (which itself is a set, however, not a singleton). A set is a singleton if and only if its cardinality is . In von Neumann's set-theoretic construction of the natural numbers, the number 1 is ''defined'' as the singleton \. In axiomatic set theory, the existence of singletons is a consequence of the axiom of pairing: for any set ''A'', the axiom applied to ''A'' and ''A'' asserts the existence of \, which is the sa ...
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