Complex Plane
In mathematics, the complex plane is the plane formed by the complex numbers, with a Cartesian coordinate system such that the axis, called the real axis, is formed by the real numbers, and the axis, called the imaginary axis, is formed by the imaginary numbers. The complex plane allows a geometric interpretation of complex numbers. Under addition, they add like vectors. The multiplication of two complex numbers can be expressed more easily in polar coordinates—the magnitude or ''modulus'' of the product is the product of the two absolute values, or moduli, and the angle or ''argument'' of the product is the sum of the two angles, or arguments. In particular, multiplication by a complex number of modulus 1 acts as a rotation. The complex plane is sometimes known as the Argand plane or Gauss plane. Notational conventions Complex numbers In complex analysis, the complex numbers are customarily represented by the symbol ''z'', which can be separated into its real (''x'') an ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Mathematics
Mathematics is an area of knowledge that includes the topics of numbers, formulas and related structures, shapes and the spaces in which they are contained, and quantities and their changes. These topics are represented in modern mathematics with the major subdisciplines of number theory, algebra, geometry, and analysis, respectively. There is no general consensus among mathematicians about a common definition for their academic discipline. Most mathematical activity involves the discovery of properties of abstract objects and the use of pure reason to prove them. These objects consist of either abstractions from nature orin modern mathematicsentities that are stipulated to have certain properties, called axioms. A ''proof'' consists of a succession of applications of deductive rules to already established results. These results include previously proved theorems, axioms, andin case of abstraction from naturesome basic properties that are considered true starting points of t ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Power Series
In mathematics, a power series (in one variable) is an infinite series of the form \sum_^\infty a_n \left(x  c\right)^n = a_0 + a_1 (x  c) + a_2 (x  c)^2 + \dots where ''an'' represents the coefficient of the ''n''th term and ''c'' is a constant. Power series are useful in mathematical analysis, where they arise as Taylor series of infinitely differentiable functions. In fact, Borel's theorem implies that every power series is the Taylor series of some smooth function. In many situations, ''c'' (the ''center'' of the series) is equal to zero, for instance when considering a Maclaurin series. In such cases, the power series takes the simpler form \sum_^\infty a_n x^n = a_0 + a_1 x + a_2 x^2 + \dots. Beyond their role in mathematical analysis, power series also occur in combinatorics as generating functions (a kind of formal power series) and in electronic engineering (under the name of the Ztransform). The familiar decimal notation for real numbers can also be viewed ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Zeros And Poles
In complex analysis (a branch of mathematics), a pole is a certain type of singularity of a complexvalued function of a complex variable. In some sense, it is the simplest type of singularity. Technically, a point is a pole of a function if it is a zero of the function and is holomorphic in some neighbourhood of (that is, complex differentiable in a neighbourhood of ). A function is meromorphic in an open set if for every point of there is a neighborhood of in which either or is holomorphic. If is meromorphic in , then a zero of is a pole of , and a pole of is a zero of . This induces a duality between ''zeros'' and ''poles'', that is fundamental for the study of meromorphic functions. For example, if a function is meromorphic on the whole complex plane plus the point at infinity, then the sum of the multiplicities of its poles equals the sum of the multiplicities of its zeros. Definitions A function of a complex variable is holomorphic in an open d ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Caspar Wessel
Caspar Wessel (8 June 1745, Vestby – 25 March 1818, Copenhagen) was a Danish– Norwegian mathematician and cartographer. In 1799, Wessel was the first person to describe the geometrical interpretation of complex numbers as points in the complex plane and vectors. Biography Wessel was born in Jonsrud, Vestby, Akershus in Norway to pastor Jonas Wessel (1707  85) and Helene Marie Schumacher (1715  89). Helene came from Drammen and was of Griffenfeldts heritage. Growing up in Wesselstuen in Vestby he was one of thirteen children in a family. His brothers include Johan Herman Wessel and Ole Christopher Wessel. Wessel is the grandnephew of the nobleman Peter Tordenskjold, brother in law of Maren Juel and the greatgreatgreatgrandfather to the famous radio engineer Jan Wessel. In 1763, having completed secondary school at Oslo Cathedral School, he went to Denmark for further studies. He attended the University of Copenhagen to study law, but due to financial pressures, c ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

JeanRobert Argand
JeanRobert Argand (, , ; July 18, 1768 – August 13, 1822) was an amateur mathematician. In 1806, while managing a bookstore in Paris, he published the idea of geometrical interpretation of complex numbers known as the Argand diagram and is known for the first rigorous proof of the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra. Life JeanRobert Argand was born in Geneva, then Republic of Geneva, to Jacques Argand and Eve Carnac. His background and education are mostly unknown. Since his knowledge of mathematics was selftaught and he did not belong to any mathematical organizations, he likely pursued mathematics as a hobby rather than a profession. Argand moved to Paris in 1806 with his family and, when managing a bookshop there, privately published his ''Essai sur une manière de représenter les quantités imaginaires dans les constructions géométriques'' (Essay on a method of representing imaginary quantities). In 1813, it was republished in the French journal ''Annales de Mathématiq ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Plot (graphics)
A plot is a graphical technique for representing a data set, usually as a graph showing the relationship between two or more variables. The plot can be drawn by hand or by a computer. In the past, sometimes mechanical or electronic plotters were used. Graphs are a visual representation of the relationship between variables, which are very useful for humans who can then quickly derive an understanding which may not have come from lists of values. Given a scale or ruler, graphs can also be used to read off the value of an unknown variable plotted as a function of a known one, but this can also be done with data presented in tabular form. Graphs of functions are used in mathematics, sciences, engineering, technology, finance, and other areas. Overview Plots play an important role in statistics and data analysis. The procedures here can broadly be split into two parts: quantitative and graphical. Quantitative techniques are the set of statistical procedures that yield numeric ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Range Of A Function
In mathematics, the range of a function may refer to either of two closely related concepts: * The codomain of the function * The image of the function Given two sets and , a binary relation between and is a (total) function (from to ) if for every in there is exactly one in such that relates to . The sets and are called domain and codomain of , respectively. The image of is then the subset of consisting of only those elements of such that there is at least one in with . Terminology As the term "range" can have different meanings, it is considered a good practice to define it the first time it is used in a textbook or article. Older books, when they use the word "range", tend to use it to mean what is now called the codomain. More modern books, if they use the word "range" at all, generally use it to mean what is now called the image. To avoid any confusion, a number of modern books don't use the word "range" at all. Elaboration and example Given a funct ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Domain Of A Function
In mathematics, the domain of a function is the set of inputs accepted by the function. It is sometimes denoted by \operatorname(f) or \operatornamef, where is the function. More precisely, given a function f\colon X\to Y, the domain of is . Note that in modern mathematical language, the domain is part of the definition of a function rather than a property of it. In the special case that and are both subsets of \R, the function can be graphed in the Cartesian coordinate system. In this case, the domain is represented on the axis of the graph, as the projection of the graph of the function onto the axis. For a function f\colon X\to Y, the set is called the codomain, and the set of values attained by the function (which is a subset of ) is called its range or image. Any function can be restricted to a subset of its domain. The restriction of f \colon X \to Y to A, where A\subseteq X, is written as \left. f \_A \colon A \to Y. Natural domain If a real function ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Unit Circle
In mathematics, a unit circle is a circle of unit radius—that is, a radius of 1. Frequently, especially in trigonometry, the unit circle is the circle of radius 1 centered at the origin (0, 0) in the Cartesian coordinate system in the Euclidean plane. In topology, it is often denoted as because it is a onedimensional unit sphere. If is a point on the unit circle's circumference, then and are the lengths of the legs of a right triangle whose hypotenuse has length 1. Thus, by the Pythagorean theorem, and satisfy the equation x^2 + y^2 = 1. Since for all , and since the reflection of any point on the unit circle about the  or axis is also on the unit circle, the above equation holds for all points on the unit circle, not only those in the first quadrant. The interior of the unit circle is called the open unit disk, while the interior of the unit circle combined with the unit circle itself is called the closed unit disk. One may also use other notions of "dist ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Line Integral
In mathematics, a line integral is an integral where the function to be integrated is evaluated along a curve. The terms ''path integral'', ''curve integral'', and ''curvilinear integral'' are also used; ''contour integral'' is used as well, although that is typically reserved for line integrals in the complex plane. The function to be integrated may be a scalar field or a vector field. The value of the line integral is the sum of values of the field at all points on the curve, weighted by some scalar function on the curve (commonly arc length or, for a vector field, the scalar product of the vector field with a differential vector in the curve). This weighting distinguishes the line integral from simpler integrals defined on intervals. Many simple formulae in physics, such as the definition of work as W=\mathbf\cdot\mathbf, have natural continuous analogues in terms of line integrals, in this case \textstyle W = \int_L \mathbf(\mathbf)\cdot d\mathbf, which computes the wo ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Inner Product
In mathematics, an inner product space (or, rarely, a Hausdorff preHilbert space) is a real vector space or a complex vector space with an operation called an inner product. The inner product of two vectors in the space is a scalar, often denoted with angle brackets such as in \langle a, b \rangle. Inner products allow formal definitions of intuitive geometric notions, such as lengths, angles, and orthogonality (zero inner product) of vectors. Inner product spaces generalize Euclidean vector spaces, in which the inner product is the dot product or ''scalar product'' of Cartesian coordinates. Inner product spaces of infinite dimension are widely used in functional analysis. Inner product spaces over the field of complex numbers are sometimes referred to as unitary spaces. The first usage of the concept of a vector space with an inner product is due to Giuseppe Peano, in 1898. An inner product naturally induces an associated norm, (denoted , x, and , y, in the pictu ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 