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 Complete Metric Space In mathematical analysis, a metric space is called complete (or a Cauchy space) if every Cauchy sequence of points in has a limit that is also in . Intuitively, a space is complete if there are no "points missing" from it (inside or at the boundary). For instance, the set of rational numbers is not complete, because e.g. \sqrt is "missing" from it, even though one can construct a Cauchy sequence of rational numbers that converges to it (see further examples below). It is always possible to "fill all the holes", leading to the ''completion'' of a given space, as explained below. Definition Cauchy sequence A sequence x_1, x_2, x_3, \ldots in a metric space (X, d) is called Cauchy if for every positive real number r > 0 there is a positive integer N such that for all positive integers m, n > N, d\left(x_m, x_n\right) < r. Complete space A metric space $\left(X, d\right)$ is complete if any of the following equivalent conditions are satisfied: :#Every [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Mathematical Analysis Analysis is the branch of mathematics dealing with continuous functions, limit (mathematics), limits, and related theories, such as Derivative, differentiation, Integral, integration, measure (mathematics), measure, infinite sequences, series (mathematics), series, and analytic functions. These theories are usually studied in the context of Real number, real and Complex number, complex numbers and Function (mathematics), functions. Analysis evolved from calculus, which involves the elementary concepts and techniques of analysis. Analysis may be distinguished from geometry; however, it can be applied to any Space (mathematics), space of mathematical objects that has a definition of nearness (a topological space) or specific distances between objects (a metric space). History Ancient Mathematical analysis formally developed in the 17th century during the Scientific Revolution, but many of its ideas can be traced back to earlier mathematicians. Early results in analysis were i ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Unit Interval In mathematics, the unit interval is the closed interval , that is, the set of all real numbers that are greater than or equal to 0 and less than or equal to 1. It is often denoted ' (capital letter ). In addition to its role in real analysis, the unit interval is used to study homotopy theory in the field of topology. In the literature, the term "unit interval" is sometimes applied to the other shapes that an interval from 0 to 1 could take: , , and . However, the notation ' is most commonly reserved for the closed interval . Properties The unit interval is a complete metric space, homeomorphic to the extended real number line. As a topological space, it is compact, contractible, path connected and locally path connected. The Hilbert cube is obtained by taking a topological product of countably many copies of the unit interval. In mathematical analysis, the unit interval is a one-dimensional analytical manifold whose boundary consists of the two points 0 and 1 ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Sequence In mathematics, a sequence is an enumerated collection of objects in which repetitions are allowed and order matters. Like a set, it contains members (also called ''elements'', or ''terms''). The number of elements (possibly infinite) is called the ''length'' of the sequence. Unlike a set, the same elements can appear multiple times at different positions in a sequence, and unlike a set, the order does matter. Formally, a sequence can be defined as a function from natural numbers (the positions of elements in the sequence) to the elements at each position. The notion of a sequence can be generalized to an indexed family, defined as a function from an ''arbitrary'' index set. For example, (M, A, R, Y) is a sequence of letters with the letter 'M' first and 'Y' last. This sequence differs from (A, R, M, Y). Also, the sequence (1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8), which contains the number 1 at two different positions, is a valid sequence. Sequences can be ''finite'', as in these examples, or ''infi ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Prime Number A prime number (or a prime) is a natural number greater than 1 that is not a product of two smaller natural numbers. A natural number greater than 1 that is not prime is called a composite number. For example, 5 is prime because the only ways of writing it as a product, or , involve 5 itself. However, 4 is composite because it is a product (2 × 2) in which both numbers are smaller than 4. Primes are central in number theory because of the fundamental theorem of arithmetic: every natural number greater than 1 is either a prime itself or can be factorized as a product of primes that is unique up to their order. The property of being prime is called primality. A simple but slow method of checking the primality of a given number n, called trial division, tests whether n is a multiple of any integer between 2 and \sqrt. Faster algorithms include the Miller–Rabin primality test, which is fast but has a small chance of error, and the AKS primality test, which alway ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] P-adic Number In mathematics, the -adic number system for any prime number  extends the ordinary arithmetic of the rational numbers in a different way from the extension of the rational number system to the real and complex number systems. The extension is achieved by an alternative interpretation of the concept of "closeness" or absolute value. In particular, two -adic numbers are considered to be close when their difference is divisible by a high power of : the higher the power, the closer they are. This property enables -adic numbers to encode congruence information in a way that turns out to have powerful applications in number theory – including, for example, in the famous proof of Fermat's Last Theorem by Andrew Wiles. These numbers were first described by Kurt Hensel in 1897, though, with hindsight, some of Ernst Kummer's earlier work can be interpreted as implicitly using -adic numbers.Translator's introductionpage 35 "Indeed, with hindsight it becomes apparent that a d ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Locally Convex Topological Vector Space In functional analysis and related areas of mathematics, locally convex topological vector spaces (LCTVS) or locally convex spaces are examples of topological vector spaces (TVS) that generalize normed spaces. They can be defined as topological vector spaces whose topology is generated by translations of balanced, absorbent, convex sets. Alternatively they can be defined as a vector space with a family of seminorms, and a topology can be defined in terms of that family. Although in general such spaces are not necessarily normable, the existence of a convex local base for the zero vector is strong enough for the Hahn–Banach theorem to hold, yielding a sufficiently rich theory of continuous linear functionals. Fréchet spaces are locally convex spaces that are completely metrizable (with a choice of complete metric). They are generalizations of Banach spaces, which are complete vector spaces with respect to a metric generated by a norm. History Metrizable topologies on ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Fréchet Space In functional analysis and related areas of mathematics, Fréchet spaces, named after Maurice Fréchet, are special topological vector spaces. They are generalizations of Banach spaces ( normed vector spaces that are complete with respect to the metric induced by the norm). All Banach and Hilbert spaces are Fréchet spaces. Spaces of infinitely differentiable functions are typical examples of Fréchet spaces, many of which are typically Banach spaces. A Fréchet space X is defined to be a locally convex metrizable topological vector space (TVS) that is complete as a TVS, meaning that every Cauchy sequence in X converges to some point in X (see footnote for more details).Here "Cauchy" means Cauchy with respect to the canonical uniformity that every TVS possess. That is, a sequence x_ = \left(x_m\right)_^ in a TVS X is Cauchy if and only if for all neighborhoods U of the origin in X, x_m - x_n \in U whenever m and n are sufficiently large. Note that this definition of a ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Compact Convergence In mathematics compact convergence (or uniform convergence on compact sets) is a type of convergence that generalizes the idea of uniform convergence. It is associated with the compact-open topology. Definition Let (X, \mathcal) be a topological space and (Y,d_) be a metric space. A sequence of functions :f_ : X \to Y, n \in \mathbb, is said to converge compactly as n \to \infty to some function f : X \to Y if, for every compact set K \subseteq X, :f_, _ \to f, _ uniformly on K as n \to \infty. This means that for all compact K \subseteq X, :\lim_ \sup_ d_ \left( f_ (x), f(x) \right) = 0. Examples * If X = (0, 1) \subseteq \mathbb and Y = \mathbb with their usual topologies, with f_ (x) := x^, then f_ converges compactly to the constant function with value 0, but not uniformly. * If X=(0,1], Y=\R and f_n(x)=x^n, then f_n converges pointwise convergence, pointwise to the function that is zero on (0,1) and one at 1, but the sequence does not converge compactly. * A very p ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Supremum Norm In mathematical analysis, the uniform norm (or ) assigns to real- or complex-valued bounded functions defined on a set the non-negative number :\, f\, _\infty = \, f\, _ = \sup\left\. This norm is also called the , the , the , or, when the supremum is in fact the maximum, the . The name "uniform norm" derives from the fact that a sequence of functions converges to under the metric derived from the uniform norm if and only if converges to uniformly. If is a continuous function on a closed and bounded interval, or more generally a compact set, then it is bounded and the supremum in the above definition is attained by the Weierstrass extreme value theorem, so we can replace the supremum by the maximum. In this case, the norm is also called the . In particular, if is some vector such that x = \left(x_1, x_2, \ldots, x_n\right) in finite dimensional coordinate space, it takes the form: :\, x\, _\infty := \max \left(\left, x_1\ , \ldots , \left, x_n\\right). Metric and ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Continuous Functions On A Compact Hausdorff Space In mathematical analysis, and especially functional analysis, a fundamental role is played by the space of continuous functions on a compact Hausdorff space X with values in the real or complex numbers. This space, denoted by \mathcal(X), is a vector space with respect to the pointwise addition of functions and scalar multiplication by constants. It is, moreover, a normed space with norm defined by \, f\, = \sup_ , f(x), , the uniform norm. The uniform norm defines the topology of uniform convergence of functions on X. The space \mathcal(X) is a Banach algebra with respect to this norm. Properties * By Urysohn's lemma, \mathcal(X) separates points of X: If x, y \in X are distinct points, then there is an f \in \mathcal(X) such that f(x) \neq f(y). * The space \mathcal(X) is infinite-dimensional whenever X is an infinite space (since it separates points). Hence, in particular, it is generally not locally compact. * The Riesz–Markov–Kakutani representation theorem gives ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Banach Space In mathematics, more specifically in functional analysis, a Banach space (pronounced ) is a complete normed vector space. Thus, a Banach space is a vector space with a metric that allows the computation of vector length and distance between vectors and is complete in the sense that a Cauchy sequence of vectors always converges to a well-defined limit that is within the space. Banach spaces are named after the Polish mathematician Stefan Banach, who introduced this concept and studied it systematically in 1920–1922 along with Hans Hahn and Eduard Helly. Maurice René Fréchet was the first to use the term "Banach space" and Banach in turn then coined the term " Fréchet space." Banach spaces originally grew out of the study of function spaces by Hilbert, Fréchet, and Riesz earlier in the century. Banach spaces play a central role in functional analysis. In other areas of analysis, the spaces under study are often Banach spaces. Definition A Banach space is a complete n ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Normed Vector Space In mathematics, a normed vector space or normed space is a vector space over the real or complex numbers, on which a norm is defined. A norm is the formalization and the generalization to real vector spaces of the intuitive notion of "length" in the real (physical) world. A norm is a real-valued function defined on the vector space that is commonly denoted x\mapsto \, x\, , and has the following properties: #It is nonnegative, meaning that \, x\, \geq 0 for every vector x. #It is positive on nonzero vectors, that is, \, x\, = 0 \text x = 0. # For every vector x, and every scalar \alpha, \, \alpha x\, = , \alpha, \, \, x\, . # The triangle inequality holds; that is, for every vectors x and y, \, x+y\, \leq \, x\, + \, y\, . A norm induces a distance, called its , by the formula d(x,y) = \, y-x\, . which makes any normed vector space into a metric space and a topological vector space. If this metric space is complete then the normed space is a Banach space. Every normed ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu]