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Commutative Ring
In mathematics, a commutative ring is a ring in which the multiplication operation is commutative. The study of commutative rings is called commutative algebra. Complementarily, noncommutative algebra is the study of ring properties that are not specific to commutative rings. This distinction results from the high number of fundamental properties of commutative rings that do not extend to noncommutative rings. Definition and first examples Definition A ''ring'' is a set R equipped with two binary operations, i.e. operations combining any two elements of the ring to a third. They are called ''addition'' and ''multiplication'' and commonly denoted by "+" and "\cdot"; e.g. a+b and a \cdot b. To form a ring these two operations have to satisfy a number of properties: the ring has to be an abelian group under addition as well as a monoid under multiplication, where multiplication distributes over addition; i.e., a \cdot \left(b + c\right) = \left(a \cdot b\right) + \left(a \c ...
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Mathematics
Mathematics is an area of knowledge that includes the topics of numbers, formulas and related structures, shapes and the spaces in which they are contained, and quantities and their changes. These topics are represented in modern mathematics with the major subdisciplines of number theory, algebra, geometry, and mathematical analysis, analysis, respectively. There is no general consensus among mathematicians about a common definition for their academic discipline. Most mathematical activity involves the discovery of properties of mathematical object, abstract objects and the use of pure reason to proof (mathematics), prove them. These objects consist of either abstraction (mathematics), abstractions from nature orin modern mathematicsentities that are stipulated to have certain properties, called axioms. A ''proof'' consists of a succession of applications of inference rule, deductive rules to already established results. These results include previously proved theorems, axioms ...
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Polynomial
In mathematics, a polynomial is an expression consisting of indeterminates (also called variables) and coefficients, that involves only the operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and positive-integer powers of variables. An example of a polynomial of a single indeterminate is . An example with three indeterminates is . Polynomials appear in many areas of mathematics and science. For example, they are used to form polynomial equations, which encode a wide range of problems, from elementary word problems to complicated scientific problems; they are used to define polynomial functions, which appear in settings ranging from basic chemistry and physics to economics and social science; they are used in calculus and numerical analysis to approximate other functions. In advanced mathematics, polynomials are used to construct polynomial rings and algebraic varieties, which are central concepts in algebra and algebraic geometry. Etymology The word ''polynomial'' joins ...
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Quotient Field
In abstract algebra, the field of fractions of an integral domain is the smallest field in which it can be embedded. The construction of the field of fractions is modeled on the relationship between the integral domain of integers and the field of rational numbers. Intuitively, it consists of ratios between integral domain elements. The field of fractions of R is sometimes denoted by \operatorname(R) or \operatorname(R), and the construction is sometimes also called the fraction field, field of quotients, or quotient field of R. All four are in common usage, but are not to be confused with the quotient of a ring by an ideal, which is a quite different concept. For a commutative ring which is not an integral domain, the analogous construction is called the localization or ring of quotients. Definition Given an integral domain and letting R^* = R \setminus \, we define an equivalence relation on R \times R^* by letting (n,d) \sim (m,b) whenever nb = md. We denote the equiva ...
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Multiplicatively Closed Subset
In abstract algebra, a multiplicatively closed set (or multiplicative set) is a subset ''S'' of a ring ''R'' such that the following two conditions hold: * 1 \in S, * xy \in S for all x, y \in S. In other words, ''S'' is closed under taking finite products, including the empty product 1.Eisenbud, p. 59. Equivalently, a multiplicative set is a submonoid of the multiplicative monoid of a ring. Multiplicative sets are important especially in commutative algebra, where they are used to build localizations of commutative rings. A subset ''S'' of a ring ''R'' is called saturated if it is closed under taking divisors: i.e., whenever a product ''xy'' is in ''S'', the elements ''x'' and ''y'' are in ''S'' too. Examples Examples of multiplicative sets include: * the set-theoretic complement of a prime ideal in a commutative ring; * the set , where ''x'' is an element of a ring; * the set of units of a ring; * the set of non-zero-divisors in a ring; * for an ideal ''I''. * the Jor ...
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Nilpotent Element
In mathematics, an element x of a ring R is called nilpotent if there exists some positive integer n, called the index (or sometimes the degree), such that x^n=0. The term was introduced by Benjamin Peirce in the context of his work on the classification of algebras. Examples *This definition can be applied in particular to square matrices. The matrix :: A = \begin 0 & 1 & 0\\ 0 & 0 & 1\\ 0 & 0 & 0 \end :is nilpotent because A^3=0. See nilpotent matrix for more. * In the factor ring \Z/9\Z, the equivalence class of 3 is nilpotent because 32 is congruent to 0 modulo 9. * Assume that two elements a and b in a ring R satisfy ab=0. Then the element c=ba is nilpotent as \beginc^2&=(ba)^2\\ &=b(ab)a\\ &=0.\\ \end An example with matrices (for ''a'', ''b''):A = \begin 0 & 1\\ 0 & 1 \end, \;\; B =\begin 0 & 1\\ 0 & 0 \end. Here AB=0 and BA=B. *By definition, any element of a nilsemigroup is nilpotent. Properties No nilpotent elem ...
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Integral Domain
In mathematics, specifically abstract algebra, an integral domain is a nonzero commutative ring in which the product of any two nonzero elements is nonzero. Integral domains are generalizations of the ring of integers and provide a natural setting for studying divisibility. In an integral domain, every nonzero element ''a'' has the cancellation property, that is, if , an equality implies . "Integral domain" is defined almost universally as above, but there is some variation. This article follows the convention that rings have a multiplicative identity, generally denoted 1, but some authors do not follow this, by not requiring integral domains to have a multiplicative identity. Noncommutative integral domains are sometimes admitted. This article, however, follows the much more usual convention of reserving the term "integral domain" for the commutative case and using "domain" for the general case including noncommutative rings. Some sources, notably Lang, use the term ...
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Zero Divisor
In abstract algebra, an element of a ring is called a left zero divisor if there exists a nonzero in such that , or equivalently if the map from to that sends to is not injective. Similarly, an element of a ring is called a right zero divisor if there exists a nonzero in such that . This is a partial case of divisibility in rings. An element that is a left or a right zero divisor is simply called a zero divisor. An element  that is both a left and a right zero divisor is called a two-sided zero divisor (the nonzero such that may be different from the nonzero such that ). If the ring is commutative, then the left and right zero divisors are the same. An element of a ring that is not a left zero divisor is called left regular or left cancellable. Similarly, an element of a ring that is not a right zero divisor is called right regular or right cancellable. An element of a ring that is left and right cancellable, and is hence not a zero divisor, is called ...
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Unit (algebra)
In algebra, a unit of a ring is an invertible element for the multiplication of the ring. That is, an element of a ring is a unit if there exists in such that vu = uv = 1, where is the multiplicative identity; the element is unique for this property and is called the multiplicative inverse of . The set of units of forms a group under multiplication, called the group of units or unit group of . Other notations for the unit group are , , and (from the German term ). Less commonly, the term ''unit'' is sometimes used to refer to the element of the ring, in expressions like ''ring with a unit'' or ''unit ring'', and also unit matrix. Because of this ambiguity, is more commonly called the "unity" or the "identity" of the ring, and the phrases "ring with unity" or a "ring with identity" may be used to emphasize that one is considering a ring instead of a rng. Examples The multiplicative identity and its additive inverse are always units. More generally, any root of unit ...
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Divisibility (ring Theory)
In mathematics, the notion of a divisor originally arose within the context of arithmetic of whole numbers. With the development of abstract rings, of which the integers are the archetype, the original notion of divisor found a natural extension. Divisibility is a useful concept for the analysis of the structure of commutative rings because of its relationship with the ideal structure of such rings. Definition Let ''R'' be a ring, and let ''a'' and ''b'' be elements of ''R''. If there exists an element ''x'' in ''R'' with , one says that ''a'' is a left divisor of ''b'' and that ''b'' is a right multiple of ''a''. Similarly, if there exists an element ''y'' in ''R'' with , one says that ''a'' is a right divisor of ''b'' and that ''b'' is a left multiple of ''a''. One says that ''a'' is a two-sided divisor of ''b'' if it is both a left divisor and a right divisor of ''b''; the ''x'' and ''y'' above are not required to be equal. When ''R'' is commutative, the notions of left divis ...
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Complex Manifold
In differential geometry and complex geometry, a complex manifold is a manifold with an atlas of charts to the open unit disc in \mathbb^n, such that the transition maps are holomorphic. The term complex manifold is variously used to mean a complex manifold in the sense above (which can be specified as an integrable complex manifold), and an almost complex manifold. Implications of complex structure Since holomorphic functions are much more rigid than smooth functions, the theories of smooth and complex manifolds have very different flavors: compact complex manifolds are much closer to algebraic varieties than to differentiable manifolds. For example, the Whitney embedding theorem tells us that every smooth ''n''-dimensional manifold can be embedded as a smooth submanifold of R2''n'', whereas it is "rare" for a complex manifold to have a holomorphic embedding into C''n''. Consider for example any compact connected complex manifold ''M'': any holomorphic function on it is ...
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Holomorphic Function
In mathematics, a holomorphic function is a complex-valued function of one or more complex variables that is complex differentiable in a neighbourhood of each point in a domain in complex coordinate space . The existence of a complex derivative in a neighbourhood is a very strong condition: it implies that a holomorphic function is infinitely differentiable and locally equal to its own Taylor series (''analytic''). Holomorphic functions are the central objects of study in complex analysis. Though the term ''analytic function'' is often used interchangeably with "holomorphic function", the word "analytic" is defined in a broader sense to denote any function (real, complex, or of more general type) that can be written as a convergent power series in a neighbourhood of each point in its domain. That all holomorphic functions are complex analytic functions, and vice versa, is a major theorem in complex analysis. Holomorphic functions are also sometimes referred to as ''reg ...
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Differentiable Function
In mathematics, a differentiable function of one real variable is a function whose derivative exists at each point in its domain. In other words, the graph of a differentiable function has a non- vertical tangent line at each interior point in its domain. A differentiable function is smooth (the function is locally well approximated as a linear function at each interior point) and does not contain any break, angle, or cusp. If is an interior point in the domain of a function , then is said to be ''differentiable at'' if the derivative f'(x_0) exists. In other words, the graph of has a non-vertical tangent line at the point . is said to be differentiable on if it is differentiable at every point of . is said to be ''continuously differentiable'' if its derivative is also a continuous function over the domain of the function f. Generally speaking, is said to be of class if its first k derivatives f^(x), f^(x), \ldots, f^(x) exist and are continuous over the domain of t ...
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