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Cognitive Dissonance
In the field of psychology Psychology is the scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is an occurrence in the real world. ..., cognitive dissonance is the perception of contradictory information. Relevant items of information include a person's actions, feelings, ideas In common usage and in philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about existence Existence is the ability of an entity to interact with physical reality Reality is the sum or agg ..., beliefs A belief is an Attitude (psychology), attitude that something is the case, or that some proposition about the world is truth, true. In epistemology, philosophers use the term "belief" to refer to attitudes about the world which can be either tru ..., values In ethics Ethics or moral philosophy is a ...
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Psychology
Psychology is the scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is an occurrence in the real world. The usual test for a statement of fac ... study of mind The mind is the set of faculties responsible for mental phenomena A phenomenon (; plural phenomena) is an observable fact or event. The term came into its modern philosophical Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fund ... and behavior Behavior (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States. Currently, American English .... Psychology includes the study of conscious , an English Paracelsian Paracelsianism (also Paracelsism; German: ') was an early modern History of medicine, medical movem ...
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Stress (biology)
Stress, either physiological, biological, or psychological is an organism's response to a stressor such as an environmental condition. Stress is the body's method of reacting to a condition such as a threat, :wikt:challenge, challenge or physical and Psychological stress, psychological barrier. Stimuli that alter an organism's environment are responded to by multiple systems in the body. In humans and most mammals, the autonomic nervous system and Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis are the two major systems that respond to stress. The sympathoadrenal medullary (SAM) axis may activate the fight-or-flight response through the sympathetic nervous system, which dedicates energy to more relevant bodily systems to Acute stress reaction, acute adaptation to stress, while the parasympathetic nervous system returns the body to homeostasis. The second major physiological stress-response center, the HPA axis, regulates the release of cortiso ...
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Rebbe
A Rebbe ( he, רבי: ) or Admor ( he, אדמו״ר) is the spiritual leader in the Hasidic movement Hasidism, sometimes spelled Chassidism, and also known as Hasidic Judaism ( he, חסידות, Ḥăsīdut, ; originally, "piety"), is a subgroup of Haredi Judaism Haredi Judaism ( he, חֲרֵדִי ', ; also spelled ''Charedi'', plural ''Hare ..., and the personalities of its dynasties.Heilman, Samuel"The Rebbe and the Resurgence of Orthodox Judaism."''Religion and Spirituality (Audio)''. UCTV, 20 Oct 2011. web. 31 Jul 2013. The titles of Rebbe and Admor, which used to be a general honor title even before the beginning of the movement, became, over time, almost exclusively identified with its Tzaddik Tzadik ( he, צַדִּיק , "righteous ne, also ''zadik'', ''ṣaddîq'' or ''sadiq''; pl. ''tzadikim'' ''ṣadiqim'') is a title in Judaism Judaism ( he, יהדות, ''Yahadut''; originally from Hebrew , ''Yehudah'', "Kingdom of ...im. Terminology and or ...
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Chabad
Chabad, also known as Lubavitch, Habad and Chabad-Lubavitch (), is an Orthodox Judaism, Orthodox Jewish List of Hasidic dynasties, Hasidic dynasty. Chabad is one of the world's best-known Hasidic Judaism, Hasidic movements, particularly for its outreach activities. It is one of the largest Hasidic groups and Jewish religious organizations in the world. Unlike most Haredi Judaism, ultra-Orthodox groups, which are self-segregating, Chabad operates mainly in the wider world and caters to secularized Jews. Founded in 1775 by Rabbi Schneur Zalman of Liadi, the name "Chabad" () is an acronym formed from three Hebrew words— (): "Wisdom, Understanding, and Knowledge"—which represent the Chabad philosophy, intellectual underpinnings of the movement. The name Lyubavichi, Rudnyansky District, Smolensk Oblast, Lubavitch derives from the town in which the now-dominant line of leaders resided from 1813 to 1915. Other, Chabad offshoot groups, non-Lubavitch scions of Chabad either disappear ...
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Proselytism
Proselytism () is the act or fact of religious conversion Religious conversion is the adoption of a set of beliefs identified with one particular to the exclusion of others. Thus "religious conversion" would describe the abandoning of adherence to one denomination and affiliating with another. This m .... It has come to be seen as a form of involuntary forced conversion Forced conversion is the adoption of a different religion Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of designated religious behaviour, behaviors and practices, morality, morals, beliefs, worldviews, religious text, texts, shrine, sa ... through bribery, coercion, or violence, as such, proselytism is illegal in some countries. It is considered to be an opposite to conscious and voluntary forms of conversion, such as those taught in ''evangelism The Four Evangelists In Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jes ...
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When Prophecy Fails
''When Prophecy Fails: A Social and Psychological Study of a Modern Group That Predicted the Destruction of the World'' is a classic work of social psychology by Leon Festinger, Henry Riecken, and Stanley Schachter, published in 1956, detailing a study of a small UFO religion in Chicago called The Seekers (rapturists), the Seekers that believed in an imminent apocalypse. The authors took a particular interest in the members' coping mechanisms after the event did not occur, focusing on the cognitive dissonance between the members' beliefs and actual events, and the psychological consequences of these disconfirmed expectancy, disconfirmed expectations. One of the first published cases of dissonance was reported in this book. Overview Festinger, Riecken and Schachter were already studying the effects of prophecy disconfirmation on groups of believers, when they read a story in a local newspaper headlined "Prophecy from Planet. Clarion Call to City: Flee That Flood. It'll Swamp us o ...
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Hanover
Hanover (; german: Hannover ; nds, Hannober) is the capital and largest city of the German States of Germany, state of Lower Saxony. Its 534,049 (2020) inhabitants make it the List of cities in Germany by population, 13th-largest city in Germany as well as the third-largest city in Northern Germany after Hamburg and Bremen. Hanover's urban area comprises the towns of Garbsen, Langenhagen and Laatzen and has a population of about 791,000 (2018). The Hanover Region has approximately 1.16 million inhabitants (2019). The city lies at the confluence of the River Leine and its tributary the Ihme, in the south of the North German Plain, and is the largest city in the Hannover–Braunschweig–Göttingen–Wolfsburg Metropolitan Region. It is the fifth-largest city in the Low German dialect area after Hamburg, Dortmund, Essen and Bremen. Before it became the capital of Lower Saxony in 1946, Hanover was the capital of the Principality of Calenberg (1636–1692), the Electorate of Hanov ...
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David Woodard
David Woodard (, ; born April 6, 1964) is an American conductor and writer. During the 1990s he coined the term ''prequiem'', a portmanteau of preemptive and requiem, to describe his Buddhist practice of composing dedicated music to be rendered during or slightly before the death of its subject. Los Angeles memorial services at which Woodard has served as conductor or music director include a 2001 civic ceremony held at the Angels Flight funicular railway honoring mishap casualty Leon Praport and his injured widow Lola. He has conducted wildlife requiems, including for a Brown pelican#Depictions in culture, California brown pelican on the Beach#Overview, berm crest of a beach where the animal had fallen. He is reputed to favor colored inks in preparing a score. Timothy McVeigh asked Woodard to conduct a prequiem Requiem, Mass on the eve of his execution in Terre Haute, Indiana. Acknowledging McVeigh's Oklahoma City bombing, "horrible deed", yet intending to provide comfort, Wooda ...
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Christian Kracht
Christian Kracht (; born 29 December 1966) is a Swiss author. His books have been translated into more than 30 languages. Personal life Kracht was born in Saanen Saanen (french: Gessenay) is a municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws to w .... He attended Schule Schloss Salem Schule Schloss Salem (Anglicisation: ''School of Salem Castle'', ''Salem Castle School'') is a boarding school with campuses in Salem, Baden-Württemberg, Salem and Überlingen in Baden-Württemberg, Southern Germany. It is considered one of th ... in Baden-Württemberg Baden-Württemberg (; ) is a state (''Land'') in southwest Germany Southern Germany () as a region has no exact boundary but is generally taken to include the areas in which Upper German dialects are spoken. This corresponds roughly to the h ..., Germany, and ...
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Ideal (ethics)
An ideal is a principle or Value (personal and cultural), value that an entity actively pursues as a goal and holds above other concerns perceived as being less meaningful. Terms relating to the general belief in ideals include ethical idealism, moral idealism, and principled idealism. An ethical idealist, moral idealist, principled idealist or simply an idealist insists on holding onto ideals even at a considerable cost as a consequence of holding such a belief. There is an inherent relationship between the terms "ideal" and "ethical" in the context of ethics, noted by Philosopher Rushworth Kidder who stated that "standard definitions of ethics have typically included such phrases as 'the science of the ideal human character". When Ethics in religion, based in religious traditions or Secular ethics, fundamentally secular, an entity's relative prioritization of ideals often serves to indicate the extent of that entity's moral dedication. There are a range of philosophical s ...
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Belief
A belief is an attitude Attitude may refer to: Philosophy and psychology * Attitude (psychology) In psychology Psychology is the science of mind and behavior. Psychology includes the study of consciousness, conscious and Unconscious mind, unconscious phenome ... that something is the case, or that some proposition In logic and linguistics, a proposition is the meaning of a declarative sentence (linguistics), sentence. In philosophy, "Meaning (philosophy), meaning" is understood to be a non-linguistic entity which is shared by all sentences with the same mea ... about the world is true True most commonly refers to truth Truth is the property of being in accord with fact or reality.Merriam-Webster's Online Dictionarytruth 2005 In everyday language, truth is typically ascribed to things that aim to represent reality or otherw .... In epistemology Epistemology (; ) is the concerned with . Epistemologists study the nature, origin, and scope of knowledg ...
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