Clique (graph Theory)
In the mathematical area of graph theory, a clique ( or ) is a subset of vertices of an undirected graph such that every two distinct vertices in the clique are adjacent. That is, a clique of a graph G is an induced subgraph of G that is complete. Cliques are one of the basic concepts of graph theory and are used in many other mathematical problems and constructions on graphs. Cliques have also been studied in computer science: the task of finding whether there is a clique of a given size in a graph (the clique problem) is NPcomplete, but despite this hardness result, many algorithms for finding cliques have been studied. Although the study of complete subgraphs goes back at least to the graphtheoretic reformulation of Ramsey theory by , the term ''clique'' comes from , who used complete subgraphs in social networks to model cliques of people; that is, groups of people all of whom know each other. Cliques have many other applications in the sciences and particularly in bio ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

VR Complex
VR may refer to: Arts, entertainment and education * Virtual reality, a computer technology that simulates an environment with which a user may interact as if it was actually there * ''Virtua Racing'', a 1992 arcade racing game by Sega * Vocational rehabilitation * Spectre VR, an enhanced version of ''Spectre'' * '' VR.5'', an American science fiction television series in 1995 * ''VR Troopers'', an American action television show from 1994 to 1996 Businesses * VR (company), a Finnish railway company, formerly known as Valtion rautatiet ''(State Railways)'' * Valdosta Railway, in the US state of Georgia * Victorian Railways, in the Australian state of Victoria * Viktor & Rolf, an Amsterdambased fashion house * German Cooperative Financial Group (''Volksbanken und Raiffeisenbanken'') * Cape Verde Airlines (IATA airline code) Government and military * Vetenskapsrådet, the Swedish Research Council * Volunteer Reserves (United Kingdom) * Fleet Logistics Support, a squadron of ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Vertex (graph Theory)
In discrete mathematics, and more specifically in graph theory, a vertex (plural vertices) or node is the fundamental unit of which graphs are formed: an undirected graph consists of a set of vertices and a set of edges (unordered pairs of vertices), while a directed graph consists of a set of vertices and a set of arcs (ordered pairs of vertices). In a diagram of a graph, a vertex is usually represented by a circle with a label, and an edge is represented by a line or arrow extending from one vertex to another. From the point of view of graph theory, vertices are treated as featureless and indivisible objects, although they may have additional structure depending on the application from which the graph arises; for instance, a semantic network is a graph in which the vertices represent concepts or classes of objects. The two vertices forming an edge are said to be the endpoints of this edge, and the edge is said to be incident to the vertices. A vertex ''w'' is said to be ad ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Hadwiger Number
In graph theory, the Hadwiger number of an undirected graph is the size of the largest complete graph that can be obtained by contracting edges of . Equivalently, the Hadwiger number is the largest number for which the complete graph is a minor of , a smaller graph obtained from by edge contractions and vertex and edge deletions. The Hadwiger number is also known as the contraction clique number of or the homomorphism degree of . It is named after Hugo Hadwiger, who introduced it in 1943 in conjunction with the Hadwiger conjecture, which states that the Hadwiger number is always at least as large as the chromatic number of . The graphs that have Hadwiger number at most four have been characterized by . The graphs with any finite bound on the Hadwiger number are sparse, and have small chromatic number. Determining the Hadwiger number of a graph is NPhard but fixedparameter tractable. Graphs with small Hadwiger number A graph has Hadwiger number at most two if an ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Graph Minor
In graph theory, an undirected graph is called a minor of the graph if can be formed from by deleting edges and vertices and by contracting edges. The theory of graph minors began with Wagner's theorem that a graph is planar if and only if its minors include neither the complete graph nor the complete bipartite graph ., p. 77; . The Robertson–Seymour theorem implies that an analogous forbidden minor characterization exists for every property of graphs that is preserved by deletions and edge contractions., theorem 4, p. 78; . For every fixed graph , it is possible to test whether is a minor of an input graph in polynomial time; together with the forbidden minor characterization this implies that every graph property preserved by deletions and contractions may be recognized in polynomial time. Other results and conjectures involving graph minors include the graph structure theorem, according to which the graphs that do not have as a minor may be formed by g ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Hadwiger Conjecture (graph Theory)
In graph theory, the Hadwiger conjecture states that if G is loopless and has no K_t minor then its chromatic number satisfies It is known to be true for The conjecture is a generalization of the fourcolor theorem and is considered to be one of the most important and challenging open problems in the field. In more detail, if all proper colorings of an undirected graph G use k or more colors, then one can find k disjoint connected subgraphs of G such that each subgraph is connected by an edge to each other subgraph. Contracting the edges within each of these subgraphs so that each subgraph collapses to a single vertex produces a complete graph K_k on k vertices as a minor This conjecture, a farreaching generalization of the fourcolor problem, was made by Hugo Hadwiger in 1943 and is still unsolved. call it "one of the deepest unsolved problems in graph theory." Equivalent forms An equivalent form of the Hadwiger conjecture (the contrapositive of the form stated ab ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Turán Graph
The Turán graph, denoted by T(n,r), is a complete multipartite graph; it is formed by partitioning a set of n vertices into r subsets, with sizes as equal as possible, and then connecting two vertices by an edge if and only if they belong to different subsets. Where q and s are the quotient and remainder of dividing n by r (so n = qr + s), the graph is of the form K_, and the number of edges is : \left(1  \frac\right)\frac + . The graph has s subsets of size q+ 1 , and r  s subsets of size q; each vertex has degree nq1 or nq. It is a regular graph if n is divisible by r (i.e. when s=0). Turán's theorem Turán graphs are named after Pál Turán, who used them to prove Turán's theorem, an important result in extremal graph theory. By the pigeonhole principle, every set of ''r'' + 1 vertices in the Turán graph includes two vertices in the same partition subset; therefore, the Turán graph does not contain a clique of size ''r'' + 1. According to T ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Ramsey's Theorem
In combinatorics, Ramsey's theorem, in one of its graphtheoretic forms, states that one will find monochromatic cliques in any edge labelling (with colours) of a sufficiently large complete graph. To demonstrate the theorem for two colours (say, blue and red), let and be any two positive integers. Ramsey's theorem states that there exists a least positive integer for which every bluered edge colouring of the complete graph on vertices contains a blue clique on vertices or a red clique on vertices. (Here signifies an integer that depends on both and .) Ramsey's theorem is a foundational result in combinatorics. The first version of this result was proved by F. P. Ramsey. This initiated the combinatorial theory now called Ramsey theory, that seeks regularity amid disorder: general conditions for the existence of substructures with regular properties. In this application it is a question of the existence of ''monochromatic subsets'', that is, subsets of connected edges o ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Dense Graph
In mathematics, a dense graph is a graph in which the number of edges is close to the maximal number of edges (where every pair of vertices is connected by one edge). The opposite, a graph with only a few edges, is a sparse graph. The distinction of what constitutes a dense or sparse graph is illdefined, and depends on context. The graph density of simple graphs is defined to be the ratio of the number of edges with respect to the maximum possible edges. For undirected simple graphs, the graph density is: :D = \frac = \frac For directed, simple graphs, the maximum possible edges is twice that of undirected graphs (as there are two directions to an edge) so the density is: :D = \frac = \frac where is the number of edges and is the number of vertices in the graph. The maximum number of edges for an undirected graph is = \frac2, so the maximal density is 1 (for complete graphs) and the minimal density is 0 . Upper density ''Upper density'' is an extension of the concept of g ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Lower Bound
In mathematics, particularly in order theory, an upper bound or majorant of a subset of some preordered set is an element of that is greater than or equal to every element of . Dually, a lower bound or minorant of is defined to be an element of that is less than or equal to every element of . A set with an upper (respectively, lower) bound is said to be bounded from above or majorized (respectively bounded from below or minorized) by that bound. The terms bounded above (bounded below) are also used in the mathematical literature for sets that have upper (respectively lower) bounds. Examples For example, is a lower bound for the set (as a subset of the integers or of the real numbers, etc.), and so is . On the other hand, is not a lower bound for since it is not smaller than every element in . The set has as both an upper bound and a lower bound; all other numbers are either an upper bound or a lower bound for that . Every subset of the natural numbers has a ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Turán's Theorem
In graph theory, Turán's theorem bounds the number of edges that can be included in an undirected graph that does not have a complete subgraph of a given size. It is one of the central results of extremal graph theory, an area studying the largest or smallest graphs with given properties, and is a special case of the forbidden subgraph problem on the maximum number of edges in a graph that does not have a given subgraph. An example of an n vertex graph that does not contain any (r+1)vertex clique K_ may be formed by partitioning the set of n vertices into r parts of equal or nearly equal size, and connecting two vertices by an edge whenever they belong to two different parts. The resulting graph is the Turán graph T(n,r). Turán's theorem states that the Turán graph has the largest number of edges among all free vertex graphs. Turán's theorem, and the Turán graphs giving its extreme case, were first described and studied by Hungarian mathematician Pál Turán in 1941. ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Bipartite Dimension
In the mathematical fields of graph theory and combinatorial optimization, the bipartite dimension or biclique cover number of a graph ''G'' = (''V'', ''E'') is the minimum number of bicliques (that is complete bipartite subgraphs), needed to cover all edges in ''E''. A collection of bicliques covering all edges in ''G'' is called a biclique edge cover, or sometimes biclique cover. The bipartite dimension of ''G'' is often denoted by the symbol ''d''(''G''). Example An example for a biclique edge cover is given in the following diagrams: Image:Bipartitedimensionbipartitegraph.svg, A bipartite graph... Image:Bipartitedimensionbicliquecover.svg, ...and a covering with four bicliques Image:Bipartitedimensionredbiclique.svg, the red biclique from the cover Image:Bipartitedimensionbluebiclique.svg, the blue biclique from the cover Image:Bipartitedimensiongreenbiclique.svg, the green biclique from the cover Image:Bipartitedimensionblackbiclique.svg, th ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Clique Cover
In graph theory, a clique cover or partition into cliques of a given undirected graph is a partition of the vertices into cliques, subsets of vertices within which every two vertices are adjacent. A minimum clique cover is a clique cover that uses as few cliques as possible. The minimum for which a clique cover exists is called the clique cover number of the given graph. Relation to coloring A clique cover of a graph may be seen as a graph coloring of the complement graph of , the graph on the same vertex set that has edges between nonadjacent vertices of . Like clique covers, graph colorings are partitions of the set of vertices, but into subsets with no adjacencies ( independent sets) rather than cliques. A subset of vertices is a clique in if and only if it is an independent set in the complement of , so a partition of the vertices of is a clique cover of if and only if it is a coloring of the complement of . Computational complexity The clique cover problem in computa ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 