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Chitral
Chitral ( ; khw, , lit=field, translit=ćhitrār) is a town situated on the Kunar River, Chitral River in northern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. It serves as the capital of the Chitral District and likewise served as the capital of the Chitral (princely state), Chitral princely state that encompassed the region until its direct incorporation into West Pakistan in 1969. History Early history The Kho Chitralis came to Chitral as part of the Indo-Aryan migration into South Asia. They settled in northern parts of Chitral near the Torkhow and Mulkhow Region. Ancient era The existence of Gandhara grave culture, Gandharan Grave Culture in Chitral, found in various grave sites scattered over its valleys indicate its proximity towards the Gandhara culture, Gandharan culture alongside giving insightful knowledge of its inhabitants between the Indus Valley civilization era and the following Persian rule. Chitral is also associated with the Iron Age tribes known as Daradas. The ...
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Chitral (princely State)
Chitral (or Chitrāl) ( ur, and ) was a princely state A princely state, also called a native state, feudatory state or Indian state (for those states on the subcontinent), was a vassal state under a local or indigenous or regional ruler in a subsidiary alliance with the East India Company and af ... in alliance with British India The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in the Indian subcontinent. Collectively, they have been called British India. In one ... until 1947, then a princely state of Pakistan until 1969. The area of the state now forms the Chitral District Chitral District ( ur, ) was the largest district in the Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan, covering an area of 14,850 km², before splitting into Upper Chitral District and Lower Chitral District in 2018. Part of the Malakand Divis ... of the Malakand Division Malak ...
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Shahi Mosque, Chitral
The Shahi Mosque is the main mosque in the town of Chitral, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. It is located on the bank of the Kunar River, Chitral river adjacent to the Chitral Fort. It was the principal mosque of Chitral at the time of the existence of the Chitral (princely state), State of Chitral. The mosque was built on the orders of Shuja ul-Mulk, His Highness Shuja ul-Mulk in 1924. See also *List of mosques in Pakistan *Shuja ul-Mulk *Chitral Fort *Chitral (princely state) References

Mosques in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Mosques completed in 1922 Chitral Mughal architecture {{Pakistan-mosque-stub ...
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Khowar Language
Khowar (), is an Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan language of the Dardic languages, Dardic group spoken primarily in the Chitral and Gilgit regions of Pakistan. Khowar is spoken by the Kho people in the whole of Chitral, as well as in the Gupis-Yasin District, Gupis-Yasin and Ghizer District (2019–), Ghizer districts of Gilgit, in parts of Upper Swat (Pakistan), Swat (Mateltan Village), and in a village of Tajikistan's Wakhan region called Vrang. Speakers of Khowar have also migrated heavily to Pakistan's major urban centres, with Peshawar, Islamabad, Lahore and Karachi having significant populations. It is also spoken as a second language by the Kalash people. Names The native name of the language is ''Khō-wār'', meaning "language" (''wār'') of the Kho people. During the British Raj it was known to the English as ''Chitrālī'' (a derived adjective from the name of the Chitral region) or ''Qāshqārī''. Among the Pashtuns and Badakhshanis it is known as ''Kashkār''. ...
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Chitral Fort
The Chitral Fort is a fortification in Chitral, Chitral town, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The fort is situated on the banks of the Chitral River. The fort has a commanding position on the river and is believed to have been built in 1774 during the reign of Mohtaram Shah Katur II and restored in 1911 by Shuja ul-Mulk, His Highness Sir Shuja ul-Mulk . The compound used to house the Chitral Bodyguard, barracks of the guards of Chitral (princely state), Mehtar of Chitral. The fort was declared as the personal property of the last ruler of Chitral following the merger of Chitral State in 1969. It is now occupied by the current ceremonial Mehtar, Fateh-ul-Mulk Ali Nasir who has renovated the old Darbar Hall and state rooms following damage sustained during the earthquake of 2015. Chitral Expedition The Chitral Expedition was a military expedition in 1895 sent by the British authorities to relieve the fort which was under siege after a local coup. After the death of the old ruler, ...
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Princely States Of Pakistan
The princely states of Pakistan ( ur, ; sd, پاڪستان جون نوابي رياستون) were former princely state A princely state, also called a native state, feudatory state or Indian state (for those states on the subcontinent), was a vassal state under a local or indigenous or regional ruler in a subsidiary alliance with the East India Company and af ...s of the British Indian Empire The British Raj (; from ''rāj'', literally, "rule" in Sanskrit Sanskrit (, attributively , ''saṃskṛta-'', nominalization, nominally , ''saṃskṛtam'') is a classical language of South Asia belonging to the Indo-Aryan languages, ... which acceded to the new Dominion of Pakistan The Federation of Pakistan, also called the Dominion of Pakistan, was an independent federal dominion in South Asia established on Independence Day (Pakistan), 14 August 1947. At its inception, the Dominion of Pakistan did not include prince ... between 1947 and 1948, following ...
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Kunar River
The Kūnaṛ River ( ps, د کونړ سين), also known in its upper reaches as the Mastuj ( ps, مستوج سين), Chitral ( khw, چترال سين; ur, دریائے چترال), or Kama River ( khw, کامې سين), is about long, located in eastern Afghanistan (Nuristan, Kunar Province, Kunar, Nangarhar) and northern Pakistan (Khyber Pakhtunkhwa). It emerges just south of the Broghil Pass, in the upper part of Chitral District of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa near the Durand Line, Afghan border. The river system is fed by melting glaciers and snow of the Hindu Kush mountains. The Kunar River is a tributary of the Kabul River, which is in turn a tributary of the Indus River. Origin and course of flow The river rises in the far north glaciated Hindu Kush mountains of Chitral, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Downstream as far as the town of Mastuj it is known as the "Mastuj River" from there to its confluence with the Lotkoh River just north of the important regional centre of Chitral. ...
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Kanishka
Kanishka I (Sanskrit Sanskrit (; attributively , ; nominalization, nominally , , ) is a classical language of South Asia that belongs to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages. It arose in South Asia after its predecessor langua ...: कनिष्क; Greco-Bactrian The Bactrian Kingdom, known to historians as the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom, was a Hellenistic period, Hellenistic-era Hellenistic Greece, Greek state, and along with the Indo-Greek Kingdom, the easternmost part of the Hellenistic world in Central Asi ...: ΚΑΝΗϷΚΕ ''Kanēške''; Kharosthi The Kharosthi script, also spelled Kharoshthi or Kharoṣṭhī (Kharosthi: 𐨑𐨪𐨆𐨯𐨠𐨁) was an ancient Indian script used in Gandhara (now Pakistan and north-eastern Afghanistan) to write Gāndhārī language, Gandhari Prakrit an ...: 𐨐𐨞𐨁𐨮𐨿𐨐 ', '; Brahmi Brahmi (; ISO 15919 ISO 15919 "Transliteration of Devanagari and related Indic scripts ...
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Achaemenid Empire
The Achaemenid Empire (; peo, 𐎧𐏁𐏂, translit=Xšāça, translation=The Empire), also called the First Persian Empire, was an ancient Iranian Iranian may refer to: * Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran ( fa, جمهوری اسلامی ایران ), is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered to the northwest by Armenia ... empire An empire is a "political unit" made up of several territories and peoples, "usually created by conquest, and divided between a dominant center and subordinate peripheries". Narrowly defined, an empire is a sovereign state called an empire and w ... based in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregion is a part of a larger region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics ( physical geography), human impact character ... founded by Cyrus the Great Cyrus II of Persia ( ...
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Avestan
Avestan , also known historically as Zend, comprises two languages: Old Avestan (spoken in the 2nd millennium BCE) and Younger Avestan (spoken in the 1st millennium BCE). The languages are known only from their use as the language of Zoroastrian Zoroastrianism or Mazdayasna is an Iranian religion and one of the world's oldest continuously-practiced organized faiths, based on the teachings of the Iranian-speaking prophet Zoroaster Zoroaster (, ; el, Ζωροάστρης, ''Zōro ... scripture (the Avesta The Avesta () is the primary collection of religious text Religious texts, also known as scripture, scriptures, holy writ, or holy books, are the texts which various religious traditions consider to be sacred, or of central importance to ...), from which they derive their name. Both are early Iranian languages The Iranian languages or Iranic languages are a branch of the in the that are spoken natively by the . The Iranian languages are grouped in th ...
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Sanskrit
Sanskrit (; attributively , ; nominally , , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European language ... of South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographical and culture, ethno-cultural terms. The region consists of the countries of Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri La ... that belongs to the Indo-AryanIndo-Aryan refers to: * Indo-Aryan languages ** Indo-Aryan superstrate in Mitanni or Mitanni-Aryan * Indo-Aryan peoples, the various peoples speaking these languages See also *Aryan invasion theory (other) *Indo-Aryan tribes (disambigua ... branch of the Indo-European languages The Indo-European languages are a language family A language family is ...
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Town
A town is a human settlement. Towns are generally larger than villages and smaller than city, cities, though the criteria to distinguish between them vary considerably in different parts of the world. Origin and use The word "town" shares an origin with the German language, German word , the Dutch language, Dutch word , and the Old Norse . The original Proto-Germanic language, Proto-Germanic word, *''tūnan'', is thought to be an early borrowing from Proto-Celtic language, Proto-Celtic *''dūnom'' (cf. Old Irish , Welsh language, Welsh ). The original sense of the word in both Germanic and Celtic was that of a fortress or an enclosure. Cognates of "town" in many modern Germanic languages designate a fence or a hedge. In English and Dutch, the meaning of the word took on the sense of the space which these fences enclosed, and through which a track must run. In England, a town was a small community that could not afford or was not allowed to build walls or other larger fortifi ...
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Kushan Empire
The Kushan Empire ( grc, Βασιλεία Κοσσανῶν; xbc, Κυϸανο, kus, khasano, ; Brahmi script, Late Brahmi Sanskrit: , ', '; Devanagari sa, कुषाण राजवंश, ; Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit, BHS: ; xpr, 𐭊𐭅𐭔𐭍 𐭇𐭔𐭕𐭓, ; zh, 貴霜) was a Syncretism, syncretic empire, formed by the Yuezhi, in the Bactrian territories in the early 1st century. It spread to encompass much of modern-day territory of Afghanistan, Pakistan, Nepal and northern India,at least as far as Saketa and Sarnath near Varanasi (Benares), where inscriptions have been found dating to the era of the Kushan Emperor Kanishka the Great. The Kushans were most probably one of five branches of the Yuezhi confederation, an Indo-European peoples, Indo-European nomadic people of possible Tocharians, Tocharian origin, who migrated from northwestern China (Xinjiang and Gansu) and settled in ancient Bactria. The founder of the dynasty, Kujula Kadphises, followed Greek re ...
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