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Carlo Rubbia
Carlo Rubbia, (born 31 March 1934) is an Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language *** Regional Italian, regional variants of the ... particle physicist Particle physics (also known as high energy physics) is a branch of physics that studies the nature of the particles that constitute matter and radiation. Although the word ''particle'' can refer to various types of very small objects (e.g. prot ... and inventor An invention is a unique or novel A novel is a relatively long work of narrative fiction, typically written in prose and published as a book. The present English word for a long work of prose fiction derives from the for "new", "news", or ... who shared the Nobel Prize in Physics The Nobel Prize in Physics is a yearly award given by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences for those who have ...
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Senator For Life
#REDIRECT senator for life A senator for life is a member of the senate or equivalent upper chamber of a legislature A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority In the fields of sociology Sociology is the study of society, human social behaviour, ...
{{R from other capitalisation ...
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Simon Van Der Meer
Simon van der Meer (24 November 19254 March 2011) was a Dutch particle accelerator physicist who shared the Nobel Prize in Physics The Nobel Prize in Physics is a yearly award given by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences for those who have made the most outstanding contributions for mankind in the field of physics. It is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the will ... in 1984 with Carlo Rubbia Carlo Rubbia, (born 31 March 1934) is an Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance la ... for contributions to the CERN The European Organization for Nuclear Research (french: Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire), known as CERN (; ; derived from the name ), is a European research organization that operates the largest particle physics laborat ... project which led to the discovery of the W ...
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Super Proton Synchrotron
The Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) is a particle accelerator A particle accelerator is a machine that uses electromagnetic fields to propel electric charge, charged particles to very high speeds and energies, and to contain them in well-defined particle beam, beams. Large accelerators are used for funda ... of the synchrotron A synchrotron is a particular type of cyclic , descended from the , in which the accelerating particle beam travels around a fixed closed-loop path. The which bends the particle beam into its closed path increases with time during the acceler ... type at CERN The European Organization for Nuclear Research (french: Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire), known as CERN (; ; derived from the name ), is a European research organization that operates the largest particle physics laborat .... It is housed in a circular tunnel, in circumference, straddling the border of France and Switzerland near Geneva , neighboring_municipa ...
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Charm Quark
The charm quark, charmed quark or c quark (from its symbol, c) is the third most massive of all quark A quark () is a type of elementary particle In particle physics, an elementary particle or fundamental particle is a subatomic particle that is not composed of other particles. Particles currently thought to be elementary include the fundam ...s, a type of elementary particle In particle physics, an elementary particle or fundamental particle is a subatomic particle that is not composed of other particles. Particles currently thought to be elementary include the fundamental fermions (quarks, leptons, antiquarks, and a .... Charm quarks are found in hadron In particle physics Particle physics (also known as high energy physics) is a branch of physics Physics (from grc, φυσική (ἐπιστήμη), physikḗ (epistḗmē), knowledge of nature, from ''phýsis'' 'nature'), , is the ...s, which are subatomic particle In physical sciences, subatomi ...
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Proton
A proton is a subatomic particle In physical sciences, subatomic particles are smaller than atom An atom is the smallest unit of ordinary matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. All ..., symbol or , with a positive electric charge Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field. Electric charge can be ''positive'' or ''negative'' (commonly carried by protons and electrons respectively). Like c ... of +1''e'' elementary charge The elementary charge, usually denoted by or sometimes e is the electric charge Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field. Electric charge can be ''positiv ... and a mass slightly less than that of a neutron The neutron is a subatomic particle, symbol or , which has a neutral (n ...
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Intersecting Storage Rings
The ISR (standing for "Intersecting Storage Rings") was a particle accelerator at CERN. It was the world's first hadron collider, and ran from 1971 to 1984, with a maximum center of mass energy of 62 GeV. From its initial startup, the collider itself had the capability to produce particles like the J/ψ particle, J/ψ and the Upsilon particle, upsilon, as well as observable particle jet, jet structure; however, the particle detector experiments were not configured to observe events with large momentum :wikt:transverse, transverse to the beamline, leaving these discoveries to be made at other experiments in the mid-1970s. Nevertheless, the construction of the ISR involved many advances in accelerator physics, including the first use of stochastic cooling, and it held the record for Luminosity_(scattering_theory), luminosity at a hadron collider until surpassed by the Tevatron in 2004. History The ISR was proposed in 1964 for conducting the head-on proton-proton collisions at a ...
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Weak Interaction
In nuclear physics Nuclear physics is the field of physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Motion (physics), motion and behavior through Spacetime, space and time, and the related ent ... and particle physics Particle physics (also known as high energy physics) is a branch of that studies the nature of the particles that constitute and . Although the word ' can refer to various types of very small objects (e.g. , gas particles, or even household d ..., the weak interaction, which is also often called the weak force or weak nuclear force, is one of the four known fundamental interactions#REDIRECT Fundamental interaction In physics Physics (from grc, φυσική (ἐπιστήμη), physikḗ (epistḗmē), knowledge of nature, from ''phýsis'' 'nature'), , is the natural science that studies matter, its Motion (physics ..., with the others being electromagnetism Electro ...
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Muon
The muon (; from the Greek alphabet, Greek letter mu (letter), mu (μ) used to represent it) is an elementary particle similar to the electron, with an electric charge of −1 ''e'' and a spin-½, spin of 1/2, but with a much greater mass. It is classified as a lepton. As with other leptons, the muon is not known to have any sub-structure – that is, it is not thought to be composed of any simpler particles. The muon is an unstable subatomic particle with a mean lifetime of , much longer than many other subatomic particles. As with the decay of the non-elementary neutron (with a lifetime around 15 minutes), muon decay is slow (by subatomic standards) because the decay is mediated only by the weak interaction (rather than the more powerful strong interaction or electromagnetic interaction), and because the mass difference between the muon and the set of its decay products is small, providing few kinetic degrees of freedom for decay. Muon decay almost always produces at l ...
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Postdoctoral Research
A postdoctoral researcher or postdoc is a person professionally conducting research after the completion of their doctoral studies (typically a PhD A Doctor of Philosophy (PhD, Ph.D., or DPhil; Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as La ...). The ultimate goal of a postdoctoral research position is to pursue additional research, training, or teaching in order to have better skills to pursue a career in academia, research, or any other field. Postdocs often, but not always, have a temporary academic appointment, sometimes in preparation for an academic faculty Faculty may refer to: * Faculty (academic staff), the academic staff of a university (North American usage) * Faculty (division), a division within a university (usage outside of the United States) * Faculty (instrument), an instrument or warrant ... position. T ...
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Marcello Conversi
Marcello Conversi (August 25, 1917 – September 22, 1988) was an Italy, Italian Particle physics, particle physicist. He is best known for his 1946 cosmic ray experiment where he showed that the "mesotron", now known as the muon, was not a strong interaction, strongly interacting particle. Conversi studied under Enrico Fermi at the Sapienza University of Rome, University of Rome, and received his doctorate in 1940, doing his thesis under Bruno Ferretti. During World War II, Conversi remained in Italy, doing research and teaching at the University of Rome. Together with Oreste Piccioni and Ettore Pancini he conducted the experiment that Luis Walter Alvarez, Nobel Prize in Physics, Nobel Prize laureate of 1968, called the "start of modern particle physics" in his Nobel lecture. In 1946, they showed that the "mesotron", now known as the muon, which had been discovered in 1937 by Seth Neddermeyer and Carl David Anderson, was not the particle predicted by Hideki Yukawa as mediator of ...
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Cosmic Ray
Cosmic rays are high-energy proton A proton is a subatomic particle, symbol or , with a positive electric charge of +1''e'' elementary charge and a mass slightly less than that of a neutron. Protons and neutrons, each with masses of approximately one atomic mass unit, are collecti ...s and atomic nuclei The atomic nucleus is the small, dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom, discovered in 1911 by Ernest Rutherford based on the 1909 Geiger-Marsden experiments, Geiger–Marsden gold foil experiment. After the d ... that move through space at nearly the speed of light The speed of light in vacuum A vacuum is a space Space is the boundless three-dimensional Three-dimensional space (also: 3-space or, rarely, tri-dimensional space) is a geometric setting in which three values (called paramet .... They originate from the Sun The Sun is the star A star is an astronomical object consisting of a luminous sph ...
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Pisa
Pisa ( , or ) is a city and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a Administrative division, local administrative division of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality. Importance and function The provides essential public services: Civil registry, registry of births a ...'' in Tuscany it, Toscano (man) it, Toscana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = Citizenship , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = Italian , demogra ..., central Italy, straddling the Arno The Arno is a river in the Tuscany region of Italy. It is the most important river of central Italy after the Tiber. Source and route The river originates on Monte Falterona in the Casentino area of the Apennine Mountains, Apennines, and i ... just before it empties into the Ligurian Sea 300px, The Ligurian Sea The Ligurian Sea ( it, Mar Ligure; french: Mer Ligurienne; lij, Mâ Li ...
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