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 picture info Bounded Set :''"Bounded" and "boundary" are distinct concepts; for the latter see boundary (topology). A circle in isolation is a boundaryless bounded set, while the half plane is unbounded yet has a boundary. In mathematical analysis and related areas of mathematics, a set is called bounded if it is, in a certain sense, of finite measure. Conversely, a set which is not bounded is called unbounded. The word 'bounded' makes no sense in a general topological space without a corresponding metric. A bounded set is not necessarily a closed set and vise versa. For example, a subset ''S'' of a 2-dimensional real space R''2'' constrained by two parabolic curves ''x''2 + 1 and ''x''2 - 1 defined in a Cartesian coordinate system is a closed but is not bounded (unbounded). Definition in the real numbers A set ''S'' of real numbers is called ''bounded from above'' if there exists some real number ''k'' (not necessarily in ''S'') such that ''k'' ≥ '' s'' for all ''s'' in ''S''. The number ''k'' i ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Bounded Unbounded Boundedness or bounded may refer to: Economics * Bounded rationality, the idea that human rationality in decision-making is bounded by the available information, the cognitive limitations, and the time available to make the decision * Bounded emotionality, a concept within communication theory that stems from emotional labor and bounded rationality Linguistics * Boundedness (linguistics), whether a situation has a clearly defined beginning or end Mathematics * Boundedness axiom, the axiom schema of replacement * Bounded deformation, a function whose distributional derivatives are not quite well-behaved-enough to qualify as functions of bounded variation, although the symmetric part of the derivative matrix does meet that condition * Bounded growth, occurs when the growth rate of a mathematical function is constantly increasing at a decreasing rate * Bounded operator, a linear transformation ''L'' between normed vector spaces for which the ratio of the norm of ''L''(''v'') to ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Complete Metric Space In mathematical analysis, a metric space is called complete (or a Cauchy space) if every Cauchy sequence of points in has a limit that is also in . Intuitively, a space is complete if there are no "points missing" from it (inside or at the boundary). For instance, the set of rational numbers is not complete, because e.g. \sqrt is "missing" from it, even though one can construct a Cauchy sequence of rational numbers that converges to it (see further examples below). It is always possible to "fill all the holes", leading to the ''completion'' of a given space, as explained below. Definition Cauchy sequence A sequence x_1, x_2, x_3, \ldots in a metric space (X, d) is called Cauchy if for every positive real number r > 0 there is a positive integer N such that for all positive integers m, n > N, d\left(x_m, x_n\right) < r. Complete space A metric space $\left(X, d\right)$ is complete if any of the following equivalent conditions are satisfied: :#Every [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Euclidean Distance In mathematics, the Euclidean distance between two points in Euclidean space is the length of a line segment between the two points. It can be calculated from the Cartesian coordinates of the points using the Pythagorean theorem, therefore occasionally being called the Pythagorean distance. These names come from the ancient Greek mathematicians Euclid and Pythagoras, although Euclid did not represent distances as numbers, and the connection from the Pythagorean theorem to distance calculation was not made until the 18th century. The distance between two objects that are not points is usually defined to be the smallest distance among pairs of points from the two objects. Formulas are known for computing distances between different types of objects, such as the distance from a point to a line. In advanced mathematics, the concept of distance has been generalized to abstract metric spaces, and other distances than Euclidean have been studied. In some applications in statistic ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Binary Relation In mathematics, a binary relation associates elements of one set, called the ''domain'', with elements of another set, called the ''codomain''. A binary relation over sets and is a new set of ordered pairs consisting of elements in and in . It is a generalization of the more widely understood idea of a unary function. It encodes the common concept of relation: an element is ''related'' to an element , if and only if the pair belongs to the set of ordered pairs that defines the ''binary relation''. A binary relation is the most studied special case of an -ary relation over sets , which is a subset of the Cartesian product X_1 \times \cdots \times X_n. An example of a binary relation is the "divides" relation over the set of prime numbers \mathbb and the set of integers \mathbb, in which each prime is related to each integer that is a multiple of , but not to an integer that is not a multiple of . In this relation, for instance, the prime number 2 is related to numbe ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Greatest Element In mathematics, especially in order theory, the greatest element of a subset S of a partially ordered set (poset) is an element of S that is greater than every other element of S. The term least element is defined dually, that is, it is an element of S that is smaller than every other element of S. Definitions Let (P, \leq) be a preordered set and let S \subseteq P. An element g \in P is said to be if g \in S and if it also satisfies: :s \leq g for all s \in S. By using \,\geq\, instead of \,\leq\, in the above definition, the definition of a least element of S is obtained. Explicitly, an element l \in P is said to be if l \in S and if it also satisfies: :l \leq s for all s \in S. If (P, \leq) is even a partially ordered set then S can have at most one greatest element and it can have at most one least element. Whenever a greatest element of S exists and is unique then this element is called greatest element of S. The terminology least element of S is defined simil ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Interval (mathematics) In mathematics, a (real) interval is a set of real numbers that contains all real numbers lying between any two numbers of the set. For example, the set of numbers satisfying is an interval which contains , , and all numbers in between. Other examples of intervals are the set of numbers such that , the set of all real numbers \R, the set of nonnegative real numbers, the set of positive real numbers, the empty set, and any singleton (set of one element). Real intervals play an important role in the theory of integration, because they are the simplest sets whose "length" (or "measure" or "size") is easy to define. The concept of measure can then be extended to more complicated sets of real numbers, leading to the Borel measure and eventually to the Lebesgue measure. Intervals are central to interval arithmetic, a general numerical computing technique that automatically provides guaranteed enclosures for arbitrary formulas, even in the presence of uncertainties, mathematical ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Upper And Lower Bounds In mathematics, particularly in order theory, an upper bound or majorant of a subset of some preordered set is an element of that is greater than or equal to every element of . Dually, a lower bound or minorant of is defined to be an element of that is less than or equal to every element of . A set with an upper (respectively, lower) bound is said to be bounded from above or majorized (respectively bounded from below or minorized) by that bound. The terms bounded above (bounded below) are also used in the mathematical literature for sets that have upper (respectively lower) bounds. Examples For example, is a lower bound for the set (as a subset of the integers or of the real numbers, etc.), and so is . On the other hand, is not a lower bound for since it is not smaller than every element in . The set has as both an upper bound and a lower bound; all other numbers are either an upper bound or a lower bound for that . Every subset of the natural numbers has a l ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Partially Ordered Set In mathematics, especially order theory, a partially ordered set (also poset) formalizes and generalizes the intuitive concept of an ordering, sequencing, or arrangement of the elements of a set. A poset consists of a set together with a binary relation indicating that, for certain pairs of elements in the set, one of the elements precedes the other in the ordering. The relation itself is called a "partial order." The word ''partial'' in the names "partial order" and "partially ordered set" is used as an indication that not every pair of elements needs to be comparable. That is, there may be pairs of elements for which neither element precedes the other in the poset. Partial orders thus generalize total orders, in which every pair is comparable. Informal definition A partial order defines a notion of comparison. Two elements ''x'' and ''y'' may stand in any of four mutually exclusive relationships to each other: either ''x''  ''y'', or ''x'' and ''y'' are ''inc ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Normed Vector Spaces In mathematics, a normed vector space or normed space is a vector space over the real or complex numbers, on which a norm is defined. A norm is the formalization and the generalization to real vector spaces of the intuitive notion of "length" in the real (physical) world. A norm is a real-valued function defined on the vector space that is commonly denoted x\mapsto \, x\, , and has the following properties: #It is nonnegative, meaning that \, x\, \geq 0 for every vector x. #It is positive on nonzero vectors, that is, \, x\, = 0 \text x = 0. # For every vector x, and every scalar \alpha, \, \alpha x\, = , \alpha, \, \, x\, . # The triangle inequality holds; that is, for every vectors x and y, \, x+y\, \leq \, x\, + \, y\, . A norm induces a distance, called its , by the formula d(x,y) = \, y-x\, . which makes any normed vector space into a metric space and a topological vector space. If this metric space is complete then the normed space is a Banach space. Every normed ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Norm (mathematics) In mathematics, a norm is a function from a real or complex vector space to the non-negative real numbers that behaves in certain ways like the distance from the origin: it commutes with scaling, obeys a form of the triangle inequality, and is zero only at the origin. In particular, the Euclidean distance of a vector from the origin is a norm, called the Euclidean norm, or 2-norm, which may also be defined as the square root of the inner product of a vector with itself. A seminorm satisfies the first two properties of a norm, but may be zero for vectors other than the origin. A vector space with a specified norm is called a normed vector space. In a similar manner, a vector space with a seminorm is called a ''seminormed vector space''. The term pseudonorm has been used for several related meanings. It may be a synonym of "seminorm". A pseudonorm may satisfy the same axioms as a norm, with the equality replaced by an inequality "\,\leq\," in the homogeneity axiom. It can als ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Homogeneous Metric In mathematics, a metric space is a set together with a notion of ''distance'' between its elements, usually called points. The distance is measured by a function called a metric or distance function. Metric spaces are the most general setting for studying many of the concepts of mathematical analysis and geometry. The most familiar example of a metric space is 3-dimensional Euclidean space with its usual notion of distance. Other well-known examples are a sphere equipped with the angular distance and the hyperbolic plane. A metric may correspond to a metaphorical, rather than physical, notion of distance: for example, the set of 100-character Unicode strings can be equipped with the Hamming distance, which measures the number of characters that need to be changed to get from one string to another. Since they are very general, metric spaces are a tool used in many different branches of mathematics. Many types of mathematical objects have a natural notion of distance and ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Metric (mathematics) In mathematics, a metric space is a set together with a notion of ''distance'' between its elements, usually called points. The distance is measured by a function called a metric or distance function. Metric spaces are the most general setting for studying many of the concepts of mathematical analysis and geometry. The most familiar example of a metric space is 3-dimensional Euclidean space with its usual notion of distance. Other well-known examples are a sphere equipped with the angular distance and the hyperbolic plane. A metric may correspond to a metaphorical, rather than physical, notion of distance: for example, the set of 100-character Unicode strings can be equipped with the Hamming distance, which measures the number of characters that need to be changed to get from one string to another. Since they are very general, metric spaces are a tool used in many different branches of mathematics. Many types of mathematical objects have a natural notion of distance and ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu]