HOME



picture info

Articular
The articular bone is part of the lower jaw of most vertebrates Vertebrates () comprise all species of animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the Kingdom (biology), biological kingdom Animalia. With few exceptions, animals Heterotroph, consume organic ma ..., including most jawed fish Gnathostomata are the jawed vertebrate Vertebrates () comprise all species of animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the Kingdom (biology), biological kingdom Animalia. With few excepti ..., amphibians Amphibians are ectotherm File:Junonia lemonias DSF by Kadavoor.JPG, ''Junonia lemonias'' is basking under the sun. An ectotherm (from the Ancient Greek, Greek ἐκτός (''ektós'') "outside" and θερμός (''thermós'') "hot") is an o ..., birds Birds are a group of s constituting the Aves , characterised by s, toothless beaked jaws, the of eggs, a high r ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]



Articular Process
The articular processes or zygapophyses (Greek language, Greek ζυγον = "yoke" (because it links two vertebrae) + απο = "away" + φυσις = "-physis, process") of a vertebra are projections of the vertebra that serve the purpose of fitting with an adjacent vertebra. The actual region of contact is called the ''articular facet''.Moore, Keith L. et al. (2010) ''Clinically Oriented Anatomy'', 6th Ed, p.442 fig. 4.2 Articular processes spring from the junctions of the Pedicle of vertebral arch, pedicles and Lamina of the vertebral arch, laminæ, and there are two right and left, and two superior and inferior. These stick out of an end of a vertebra to lock with a zygapophysis on the next vertebra, to make the Vertebral column, backbone more stable. * The superior processes or prezygapophysis project upward from a lower vertebra, and their articular surfaces are directed more or less backward (oblique coronal plane). * The inferior processes or postzygapophysis project downwar ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]



picture info

Jaw Joint - Mammal N Non-mammal
The jaw is any opposable articulated structure at the entrance of the mouth, typically used for grasping and manipulating food. The term ''jaws'' is also broadly applied to the whole of the structures constituting the vault of the mouth and serving to open and close it and is part of the body plan of humans and most animals. Arthropods In arthropods, the jaws are chitinous and oppose laterally, and may consist of ''Mandible (arthropod mouthpart), mandibles'' or ''chelicerae''. These jaws are often composed of numerous Arthropod mouthparts, mouthparts. Their function is fundamentally for food acquisition, conveyance to the mouth, and/or initial processing (''mastication'' or ''chewing''). Many mouthparts and associate structures (such as pedipalps) are modified legs. Vertebrates In most vertebrates, the jaws are bone, bony or cartilage, cartilaginous and oppose vertically, comprising an ''upper jaw'' and a ''lower jaw''. The vertebrate jaw is derived from the most anterior t ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]



picture info

Quadrate Bone
The quadrate bone is a skull The skull is a bone A bone is a rigid tissue Tissue may refer to: Biology * Tissue (biology), an ensemble of similar cells that together carry out a specific function * ''Triphosa haesitata'', a species of geometer moth found in North A ... bone in most tetrapods Tetrapods (; ) are four-limbed animals constituting the superclass Tetrapoda (). It includes Neontology#Extant taxa vs. extinct taxa, extant and extinct amphibians, reptiles (including dinosaurs and therefore birds), and synapsids (including mam ..., including amphibians Amphibians are ectotherm File:Junonia lemonias DSF by Kadavoor.JPG, ''Junonia lemonias'' is basking under the sun. An ectotherm (from the Ancient Greek, Greek ἐκτός (''ektós'') "outside" and θερμός (''thermós'') "hot") is an o ..., sauropsids Sauropsida ("lizard faces") is a clade A clade (; from grc, , ''klados'', "branch"), also known as a monophyletic group or natural group, is a ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]



picture info

Mandible
In anatomy Anatomy (Greek ''anatomē'', 'dissection') is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts. Anatomy is a branch of natural science which deals with the structural organization of living things. It ..., the mandible, lower jaw or jawbone is the largest, strongest and lowest bone A bone is a rigid tissue Tissue may refer to: Biology * Tissue (biology), an ensemble of similar cells that together carry out a specific function * ''Triphosa haesitata'', a species of geometer moth found in North America * ''Triphosa dubit ... in the human facial skeleton The facial skeleton comprises the ''facial bones'' that may attach to build a portion of the skull The skull is a bone A bone is a Stiffness, rigid tissue (anatomy), tissue that constitutes part of the skeleton in most vertebrate animals. .... It forms the lower jaw The jaw is any opposable articulated structure at the entrance of the , typically used ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]



picture info

Homology (biology)
In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological mechanisms, Development ..., homology is similarity due to shared ancestry between a pair of structures or genes In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological mechani ... in different taxa In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological mechanism .... A common example of homologous structures is the forelimbs of vertebrates Vertebrates () comprise all species of ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]



picture info

Analogy (biology)
Convergent evolution is the independent evolution Evolution is change in the heritable Heredity, also called inheritance or biological inheritance, is the passing on of Phenotypic trait, traits from parents to their offspring; either through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction, ... of similar features in species of different periods or epochs in time. Convergent evolution creates analogous structures that have similar form or function but were not present in the last common ancestor of those groups. The cladistic Cladistics (; ) is an approach to Taxonomy (biology), biological classification in which organisms are categorized in groups ("clades") based on hypotheses of most recent common ancestry. The evidence for hypothesized relationships is typically ... term for the same phenomenon is homoplasy Homoplasy, in biology and phylogenetics, is when a Phenotypic trait, trait has been gained or lost independently in separate lineages over the course of evol ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]



Synapomorphy And Apomorphy
In phylogenetics In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological mechanism ..., an apomorphy (or derived trait) is a novel character Character(s) may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''Character'' (novel), a 1936 Dutch novel by Ferdinand Bordewijk * ''Characters'' (Theophrastus), a classical Greek set of character sketches attributed to Theophrastus M ... or character state that has evolved Evolution is change in the heritable Heredity, also called inheritance or biological inheritance, is the passing on of Phenotypic trait, traits from parents to their offspring; either through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction, ... from its ancestral form (or plesiomorphy In phylogenetics In biology Biology is the natural science that studies l ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]



picture info

Ossicles
The ossicles (also called auditory ossicles) are three bone A bone is a rigid tissue Tissue may refer to: Biology * Tissue (biology), an ensemble of similar cells that together carry out a specific function * ''Triphosa haesitata'', a species of geometer moth found in North America * ''Triphosa dubit ...s in either middle ear The middle ear is the portion of the ear The ear is the organ of hearing and, in mammals, balance. In mammals, the ear is usually described as having three parts—the outer ear The outer ear, external ear, or auris externa is th ... that are among the smallest bones in the human body. They serve to transmit sound In physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Motion (physics), motion and behavior through Spacetime, space and time, and the related entities of energy and force. ...s from the air to the fluid-filled labyrinth In Greek mythology ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]



Malleus
The malleus, or hammer, is a hammer-shaped small bone or ossicle The ossicles (also called auditory ossicles) are three bone A bone is a Stiffness, rigid tissue (anatomy), tissue that constitutes part of the vertebrate skeleton in animals. Bones protect the various organs of the body, produce red blood cel ... of the middle ear The middle ear is the portion of the ear The ear is the organ of hearing and, in mammals, balance. In mammals, the ear is usually described as having three parts—the outer ear The outer ear, external ear, or auris externa is th .... It connects with the incus The ''incus'' or anvil is a bone in the middle ear. The anvil-shaped small bone is one of three ossicles in the middle ear. The ''incus'' receives vibrations from the ''malleus'', to which it is connected laterally, and transmits these to the ''s ..., and is attached to the inner surface of the eardrum In the anatomy Anatomy (Greek ''anatomē'', 'dissection') is ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]



picture info

Mammals
Mammals (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became ... , 'breast') are a group of vertebrate Vertebrates () comprise all species of animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the Kingdom (biology), biological kingdom Animalia. With few exceptions, animals Heterotroph, consume organic ma ... animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular A multicellular organism is an organism In biology, an organism () is any organic, life, living system that functions as an individual entity. All organisms are composed of cells ...s constituting the class Class or The Class may refer to: Common uses not otherwise categorized * Class (biology), a taxonomic rank * Class (knowledge represen ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]



picture info

Snake
Snakes are elongated, limbless, carnivore, carnivorous reptiles of the suborder Serpentes . Like all other Squamata, squamates, snakes are ectothermic, amniote vertebrates covered in overlapping Scale (zoology), scales. Many species of snakes have skulls with several more joints than their lizard ancestors, enabling them to swallow prey much larger than their heads with their cranial kinesis, highly mobile jaws. To accommodate their narrow bodies, snakes' paired organs (such as kidneys) appear one in front of the other instead of side by side, and most have only one functional lung. Some species retain a pelvic girdle with a pair of vestigial claws on either side of the cloaca. Lizards have evolved elongate bodies without limbs or with greatly reduced limbs about twenty-five times independently via convergent evolution, leading to many lineages of legless lizards. These resemble snakes, but several common groups of legless lizards have eyelids and external ears, which snakes la ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]



picture info

Vertebrates
Vertebrates () comprise all species of animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular A multicellular organism is an organism In biology, an organism () is any organic, life, living system that functions as an individual entity. All organisms are composed of cells ...s within the subphylum In zoological nomenclature The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) is a widely accepted Convention (norm), convention in zoology that rules the formal scientific name, scientific naming of organisms treated as animals. It is als ... Vertebrata () (chordates A chordate () is an animal of the phylum Chordata (). All chordates possess 5 Apomorphy and synapomorphy , synapomorphies, or primary characteristics, at some point during their larval or adulthood stages that distinguish them from all other ta ... with backbones). Vertebrates represent the overwhelming majority of the phylum In biology, a phylum (; plural The plural (sometimes ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]