Antiderivative
In calculus, an antiderivative, inverse derivative, primitive function, primitive integral or indefinite integral of a function is a differentiable function whose derivative is equal to the original function . This can be stated symbolically as . The process of solving for antiderivatives is called antidifferentiation (or indefinite integration), and its opposite operation is called ''differentiation'', which is the process of finding a derivative. Antiderivatives are often denoted by capital Roman letters such as and . Antiderivatives are related to definite integrals through the second fundamental theorem of calculus: the definite integral of a function over a closed interval where the function is Riemann integrable is equal to the difference between the values of an antiderivative evaluated at the endpoints of the interval. In physics, antiderivatives arise in the context of rectilinear motion (e.g., in explaining the relationship between position, velocity an ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Riemann Integral
In the branch of mathematics known as real analysis, the Riemann integral, created by Bernhard Riemann, was the first rigorous definition of the integral of a function on an interval. It was presented to the faculty at the University of Göttingen in 1854, but not published in a journal until 1868. For many functions and practical applications, the Riemann integral can be evaluated by the fundamental theorem of calculus or approximated by numerical integration. Overview Let be a nonnegative realvalued function on the interval , and let be the region of the plane under the graph of the function and above the interval . See the figure on the top right. This region can be expressed in setbuilder notation as S = \left \. We are interested in measuring the area of . Once we have measured it, we will denote the area in the usual way by \int_a^b f(x)\,dx. The basic idea of the Riemann integral is to use very simple approximations for the area of . By taking better and ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Slope Field
Slope fields (also called direction fields) are a graphical representation of the solutions to a firstorder differential equation of a scalar function. Solutions to a slope field are functions drawn as solid curves. A slope field shows the slope of a differential equation at certain vertical and horizontal intervals on the xy plane, and can be used to determine the approximate tangent slope at a point on a curve, where the curve is some solution to the differential equation. Definition Standard case The slope field can be defined for the following type of differential equations :y' = f(x, y), which can be interpreted geometrically as giving the slope of the tangent to the graph of the differential equation's solution (''integral curve'') at each point (''x'', ''y'') as a function of the point coordinates. It can be viewed as a creative way to plot a realvalued function of two real variables f(x,y) as a planar picture. Specifically, for a given pair x,y, a vector with the comp ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Antidifference
In discrete calculus the indefinite sum operator (also known as the antidifference operator), denoted by \sum _x or \Delta^ , is the linear operator, inverse of the forward difference operator \Delta . It relates to the forward difference operator as the indefinite integral relates to the derivative. Thus :\Delta \sum_x f(x) = f(x) \, . More explicitly, if \sum_x f(x) = F(x) , then :F(x+1)  F(x) = f(x) \, . If ''F''(''x'') is a solution of this functional equation for a given ''f''(''x''), then so is ''F''(''x'')+''C''(''x'') for any periodic function ''C''(''x'') with period 1. Therefore, each indefinite sum actually represents a family of functions. However, due to the Carlson's theorem, the solution equal to its Newton series expansion is unique up to an additive constant ''C''. This unique solution can be represented by formal power series form of the antidifference operator: \Delta^=\frac1. Fundamental theorem of discrete calculus Indefinite sums can be used to calcu ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Disjoint Union
In mathematics, a disjoint union (or discriminated union) of a family of sets (A_i : i\in I) is a set A, often denoted by \bigsqcup_ A_i, with an injection of each A_i into A, such that the images of these injections form a partition of A (that is, each element of A belongs to exactly one of these images). A disjoint union of a family of pairwise disjoint sets is their union. In category theory, the disjoint union is the coproduct of the category of sets, and thus defined up to a bijection. In this context, the notation \coprod_ A_i is often used. The disjoint union of two sets A and B is written with infix notation as A \sqcup B. Some authors use the alternative notation A \uplus B or A \operatorname B (along with the corresponding \biguplus_ A_i or \operatorname_ A_i). A standard way for building the disjoint union is to define A as the set of ordered pairs (x, i) such that x \in A_i, and the injection A_i \to A as x \mapsto (x, i). Example Consider the sets A_0 ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Displacement (geometry)
In geometry and mechanics, a displacement is a vector whose length is the shortest distance from the initial to the final position of a point P undergoing motion. It quantifies both the distance and direction of the net or total motion along a straight line from the initial position to the final position of the point trajectory. A displacement may be identified with the translation that maps the initial position to the final position. A displacement may be also described as a ''relative position'' (resulting from the motion), that is, as the final position of a point relative to its initial position . The corresponding displacement vector can be defined as the difference between the final and initial positions: s = x_\textrm  x_\textrm = \Delta In considering motions of objects over time, the instantaneous velocity of the object is the rate of change of the displacement as a function of time. The instantaneous speed, then, is distinct from velocity, or the time rate of cha ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Velocity
Velocity is the directional speed of an object in motion as an indication of its rate of change in position as observed from a particular frame of reference and as measured by a particular standard of time (e.g. northbound). Velocity is a fundamental concept in kinematics, the branch of classical mechanics that describes the motion of bodies. Velocity is a physical vector quantity; both magnitude and direction are needed to define it. The scalar absolute value ( magnitude) of velocity is called , being a coherent derived unit whose quantity is measured in the SI ( metric system) as metres per second (m/s or m⋅s−1). For example, "5 metres per second" is a scalar, whereas "5 metres per second east" is a vector. If there is a change in speed, direction or both, then the object is said to be undergoing an ''acceleration''. Constant velocity vs acceleration To have a ''constant velocity'', an object must have a constant speed in a constant direction. Constant dir ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Acceleration
In mechanics, acceleration is the rate of change of the velocity of an object with respect to time. Accelerations are vector quantities (in that they have magnitude and direction). The orientation of an object's acceleration is given by the orientation of the ''net'' force acting on that object. The magnitude of an object's acceleration, as described by Newton's Second Law, is the combined effect of two causes: * the net balance of all external forces acting onto that object — magnitude is directly proportional to this net resulting force; * that object's mass, depending on the materials out of which it is made — magnitude is inversely proportional to the object's mass. The SI unit for acceleration is metre per second squared (, \mathrm). For example, when a vehicle starts from a standstill (zero velocity, in an inertial frame of reference) and travels in a straight line at increasing speeds, it is accelerating in the direction of travel. If the vehicle tu ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Power Function
Exponentiation is a mathematical operation, written as , involving two numbers, the '' base'' and the ''exponent'' or ''power'' , and pronounced as " (raised) to the (power of) ". When is a positive integer, exponentiation corresponds to repeated multiplication of the base: that is, is the product of multiplying bases: b^n = \underbrace_. The exponent is usually shown as a superscript to the right of the base. In that case, is called "''b'' raised to the ''n''th power", "''b'' (raised) to the power of ''n''", "the ''n''th power of ''b''", "''b'' to the ''n''th power", or most briefly as "''b'' to the ''n''th". Starting from the basic fact stated above that, for any positive integer n, b^n is n occurrences of b all multiplied by each other, several other properties of exponentiation directly follow. In particular: \begin b^ & = \underbrace_ \\ ex& = \underbrace_ \times \underbrace_ \\ ex& = b^n \times b^m \end In other words, when multiplying a base raised to one exp ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Value (mathematics)
In mathematics, value may refer to several, strongly related notions. In general, a mathematical value may be any definite mathematical object. In elementary mathematics, this is most often a number – for example, a real number such as or an integer such as 42. * The value of a variable or a constant is any number or other mathematical object assigned to it. * The value of a mathematical expression is the result of the computation described by this expression when the variables and constants in it are assigned values. * The value of a function, given the value(s) assigned to its argument(s), is the quantity assumed by the function for these argument values. For example, if the function is defined by , then assigning the value 3 to its argument yields the function value 10, since . If the variable, expression or function only assumes real values, it is called realvalued. Likewise, a complexvalued variable, expression or function only assumes complex values. See als ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Vertical Translation
In Euclidean geometry, a translation is a geometric transformation that moves every point of a figure, shape or space by the same distance in a given direction. A translation can also be interpreted as the addition of a constant vector to every point, or as shifting the origin of the coordinate system. In a Euclidean space, any translation is an isometry. As a function If \mathbf is a fixed vector, known as the ''translation vector'', and \mathbf is the initial position of some object, then the translation function T_ will work as T_(\mathbf)=\mathbf+\mathbf. If T is a translation, then the image of a subset A under the function T is the translate of A by T . The translate of A by T_ is often written A+\mathbf . Horizontal and vertical translations In geometry, a vertical translation (also known as vertical shift) is a translation of a geometric object in a direction parallel to the vertical axis of the Cartesian coordinate system. Often, vertical translations a ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Graph Of A Function
In mathematics, the graph of a function f is the set of ordered pairs (x, y), where f(x) = y. In the common case where x and f(x) are real numbers, these pairs are Cartesian coordinates of points in twodimensional space and thus form a subset of this plane. In the case of functions of two variables, that is functions whose domain consists of pairs (x, y), the graph usually refers to the set of ordered triples (x, y, z) where f(x,y) = z, instead of the pairs ((x, y), z) as in the definition above. This set is a subset of threedimensional space; for a continuous realvalued function of two real variables, it is a surface. In science, engineering, technology, finance, and other areas, graphs are tools used for many purposes. In the simplest case one variable is plotted as a function of another, typically using rectangular axes; see '' Plot (graphics)'' for details. A graph of a function is a special case of a relation. In the modern foundations of mathematics, and, ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Constant Of Integration
In calculus, the constant of integration, often denoted by C (or c), is a constant term added to an antiderivative of a function f(x) to indicate that the indefinite integral of f(x) (i.e., the set of all antiderivatives of f(x)), on a connected domain, is only defined up to an additive constant. This constant expresses an ambiguity inherent in the construction of antiderivatives. More specifically, if a function f(x) is defined on an interval, and F(x) is an antiderivative of f(x), then the set of ''all'' antiderivatives of f(x) is given by the functions F(x) + C, where C is an arbitrary constant (meaning that ''any'' value of C would make F(x) + C a valid antiderivative). For that reason, the indefinite integral is often written as \int f(x) \, dx = F(x) + C, although the constant of integration might be sometimes omitted in lists of integrals for simplicity. Origin The derivative of any constant function is zero. Once one has found one antiderivative F(x) for a function ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 