Algebraic Topology
Algebraic topology is a branch of mathematics that uses tools from abstract algebra to study topological spaces. The basic goal is to find algebraic invariants that classify topological spaces up to homeomorphism, though usually most classify up to homotopy equivalence. Although algebraic topology primarily uses algebra to study topological problems, using topology to solve algebraic problems is sometimes also possible. Algebraic topology, for example, allows for a convenient proof that any subgroup of a free group is again a free group. Main branches of algebraic topology Below are some of the main areas studied in algebraic topology: Homotopy groups In mathematics, homotopy groups are used in algebraic topology to classify topological spaces. The first and simplest homotopy group is the fundamental group, which records information about loops in a space. Intuitively, homotopy groups record information about the basic shape, or holes, of a topological space. Homology ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Torus
In geometry, a torus (plural tori, colloquially donut or doughnut) is a surface of revolution generated by revolving a circle in threedimensional space about an axis that is coplanar with the circle. If the axis of revolution does not touch the circle, the surface has a ring shape and is called a torus of revolution. If the axis of revolution is tangent to the circle, the surface is a horn torus. If the axis of revolution passes twice through the circle, the surface is a spindle torus. If the axis of revolution passes through the center of the circle, the surface is a degenerate torus, a doublecovered sphere. If the revolved curve is not a circle, the surface is called a ''toroid'', as in a square toroid. Realworld objects that approximate a torus of revolution include swim rings, inner tubes and ringette rings. Eyeglass lenses that combine spherical and cylindrical correction are toric lenses. A torus should not be confused with a '' solid torus'', which is formed by ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Homology Theory
In mathematics, homology is a general way of associating a sequence of algebraic objects, such as abelian groups or modules, with other mathematical objects such as topological spaces. Homology groups were originally defined in algebraic topology. Similar constructions are available in a wide variety of other contexts, such as abstract algebra, groups, Lie algebras, Galois theory, and algebraic geometry. The original motivation for defining homology groups was the observation that two shapes can be distinguished by examining their holes. For instance, a circle is not a disk because the circle has a hole through it while the disk is solid, and the ordinary sphere is not a circle because the sphere encloses a twodimensional hole while the circle encloses a onedimensional hole. However, because a hole is "not there", it is not immediately obvious how to define a hole or how to distinguish different kinds of holes. Homology was originally a rigorous mathematical method for d ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Poincaré Duality
In mathematics, the Poincaré duality theorem, named after Henri Poincaré, is a basic result on the structure of the homology and cohomology groups of manifolds. It states that if ''M'' is an ''n''dimensional oriented closed manifold (compact and without boundary), then the ''k''th cohomology group of ''M'' is isomorphic to the (nk)th homology group of ''M'', for all integers ''k'' :H^k(M) \cong H_(M). Poincaré duality holds for any coefficient ring, so long as one has taken an orientation with respect to that coefficient ring; in particular, since every manifold has a unique orientation mod 2, Poincaré duality holds mod 2 without any assumption of orientation. History A form of Poincaré duality was first stated, without proof, by Henri Poincaré in 1893. It was stated in terms of Betti numbers: The ''k''th and (nk)th Betti numbers of a closed (i.e., compact and without boundary) orientable ''n''manifold are equal. The ''cohomology'' concept was at that time about 4 ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Real Projective Plane
In mathematics, the real projective plane is an example of a compact nonorientable twodimensional manifold; in other words, a onesided surface. It cannot be embedded in standard threedimensional space without intersecting itself. It has basic applications to geometry, since the common construction of the real projective plane is as the space of lines in passing through the origin. The plane is also often described topologically, in terms of a construction based on the Möbius strip: if one could glue the (single) edge of the Möbius strip to itself in the correct direction, one would obtain the projective plane. (This cannot be done in threedimensional space without the surface intersecting itself.) Equivalently, gluing a disk along the boundary of the Möbius strip gives the projective plane. Topologically, it has Euler characteristic 1, hence a demigenus (nonorientable genus, Euler genus) of 1. Since the Möbius strip, in turn, can be constructed from a square by g ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Klein Bottle
In topology, a branch of mathematics, the Klein bottle () is an example of a nonorientable surface; it is a twodimensional manifold against which a system for determining a normal vector cannot be consistently defined. Informally, it is a onesided surface which, if traveled upon, could be followed back to the point of origin while flipping the traveler upside down. Other related nonorientable objects include the Möbius strip and the real projective plane. While a Möbius strip is a surface with boundary, a Klein bottle has no boundary. For comparison, a sphere is an orientable surface with no boundary. The concept of a Klein bottle was first described in 1882 by the German mathematician Felix Klein. Construction The following square is a fundamental polygon of the Klein bottle. The idea is to 'glue' together the corresponding red and blue edges with the arrows matching, as in the diagrams below. Note that this is an "abstract" gluing in the sense that trying to rea ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Torus
In geometry, a torus (plural tori, colloquially donut or doughnut) is a surface of revolution generated by revolving a circle in threedimensional space about an axis that is coplanar with the circle. If the axis of revolution does not touch the circle, the surface has a ring shape and is called a torus of revolution. If the axis of revolution is tangent to the circle, the surface is a horn torus. If the axis of revolution passes twice through the circle, the surface is a spindle torus. If the axis of revolution passes through the center of the circle, the surface is a degenerate torus, a doublecovered sphere. If the revolved curve is not a circle, the surface is called a ''toroid'', as in a square toroid. Realworld objects that approximate a torus of revolution include swim rings, inner tubes and ringette rings. Eyeglass lenses that combine spherical and cylindrical correction are toric lenses. A torus should not be confused with a '' solid torus'', which is formed by ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Sphere
A sphere () is a geometrical object that is a threedimensional analogue to a twodimensional circle. A sphere is the set of points that are all at the same distance from a given point in threedimensional space.. That given point is the centre of the sphere, and is the sphere's radius. The earliest known mentions of spheres appear in the work of the ancient Greek mathematicians. The sphere is a fundamental object in many fields of mathematics. Spheres and nearlyspherical shapes also appear in nature and industry. Bubbles such as soap bubbles take a spherical shape in equilibrium. The Earth is often approximated as a sphere in geography, and the celestial sphere is an important concept in astronomy. Manufactured items including pressure vessels and most curved mirrors and lenses are based on spheres. Spheres roll smoothly in any direction, so most balls used in sports and toys are spherical, as are ball bearings. Basic terminology As mentioned earlier is th ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Plane (geometry)
In mathematics, a plane is a Euclidean ( flat), twodimensional surface that extends indefinitely. A plane is the twodimensional analogue of a point (zero dimensions), a line (one dimension) and threedimensional space. Planes can arise as subspaces of some higherdimensional space, as with one of a room's walls, infinitely extended, or they may enjoy an independent existence in their own right, as in the setting of twodimensional Euclidean geometry. Sometimes the word ''plane'' is used more generally to describe a twodimensional surface, for example the hyperbolic plane and elliptic plane. When working exclusively in twodimensional Euclidean space, the definite article is used, so ''the'' plane refers to the whole space. Many fundamental tasks in mathematics, geometry, trigonometry, graph theory, and graphing are performed in a twodimensional space, often in the plane. Euclidean geometry Euclid set forth the first great landmark of mathematical thought, an axio ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Euclidean Space
Euclidean space is the fundamental space of geometry, intended to represent physical space. Originally, that is, in Euclid's ''Elements'', it was the threedimensional space of Euclidean geometry, but in modern mathematics there are Euclidean spaces of any positive integer dimension, including the threedimensional space and the '' Euclidean plane'' (dimension two). The qualifier "Euclidean" is used to distinguish Euclidean spaces from other spaces that were later considered in physics and modern mathematics. Ancient Greek geometers introduced Euclidean space for modeling the physical space. Their work was collected by the ancient Greek mathematician Euclid in his ''Elements'', with the great innovation of '' proving'' all properties of the space as theorems, by starting from a few fundamental properties, called ''postulates'', which either were considered as evident (for example, there is exactly one straight line passing through two points), or seemed impossible to prov ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Chain (algebraic Topology)
In algebraic topology, a chain is a formal linear combination of the cells in a cell complex. In simplicial complexes (respectively, cubical complexes), chains are combinations of simplices (respectively, cubes), but not necessarily connected. Chains are used in homology; the elements of a homology group are equivalence classes of chains. Definition For a simplicial complex X, the group C_n(X) of nchains of X is given by: C_n(X) = \left\ where \sigma_i are singular nsimplices of X. Note that any element in C_n(X) not necessary to be a connected simplicial complex. Integration on chains Integration is defined on chains by taking the linear combination of integrals over the simplices in the chain with coefficients (which are typically integers). The set of all ''k''chains forms a group and the sequence of these groups is called a chain complex. Boundary operator on chains The boundary of a chain is the linear combination of boundaries of the simplices in the chain. ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Homology (mathematics)
In mathematics, homology is a general way of associating a sequence of algebraic objects, such as abelian groups or modules, with other mathematical objects such as topological spaces. Homology groups were originally defined in algebraic topology. Similar constructions are available in a wide variety of other contexts, such as abstract algebra, groups, Lie algebras, Galois theory, and algebraic geometry. The original motivation for defining homology groups was the observation that two shapes can be distinguished by examining their holes. For instance, a circle is not a disk because the circle has a hole through it while the disk is solid, and the ordinary sphere is not a circle because the sphere encloses a twodimensional hole while the circle encloses a onedimensional hole. However, because a hole is "not there", it is not immediately obvious how to define a hole or how to distinguish different kinds of holes. Homology was originally a rigorous mathematical method for d ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Algebraic Structure
In mathematics, an algebraic structure consists of a nonempty set ''A'' (called the underlying set, carrier set or domain), a collection of operations on ''A'' (typically binary operations such as addition and multiplication), and a finite set of identities, known as axioms, that these operations must satisfy. An algebraic structure may be based on other algebraic structures with operations and axioms involving several structures. For instance, a vector space involves a second structure called a field, and an operation called ''scalar multiplication'' between elements of the field (called ''scalars''), and elements of the vector space (called '' vectors''). Abstract algebra is the name that is commonly given to the study of algebraic structures. The general theory of algebraic structures has been formalized in universal algebra. Category theory is another formalization that includes also other mathematical structures and functions between structures of the same type (homomor ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 