Algebraic Geometry
Algebraic geometry is a branch of mathematics, classically studying zeros of multivariate polynomials. Modern algebraic geometry is based on the use of abstract algebraic techniques, mainly from commutative algebra, for solving geometrical problems about these sets of zeros. The fundamental objects of study in algebraic geometry are algebraic varieties, which are geometric manifestations of solutions of systems of polynomial equations. Examples of the most studied classes of algebraic varieties are: plane algebraic curves, which include lines, circles, parabolas, ellipses, hyperbolas, cubic curves like elliptic curves, and quartic curves like lemniscates and Cassini ovals. A point of the plane belongs to an algebraic curve if its coordinates satisfy a given polynomial equation. Basic questions involve the study of the points of special interest like the singular points, the inflection points and the points at infinity. More advanced questions involve the topology ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Togliatti Surface
In algebraic geometry, a Togliatti surface is a nodal surface of degree five with 31 nodes. The first examples were constructed by . proved that 31 is the maximum possible number of nodes for a surface of this degree, showing this example to be optimal. See also * Barth surface *Endrass surface *Sarti surface In algebraic geometry, a Sarti surface is a degree12 nodal surface with 600 nodes, found by . The maximal possible number of nodes of a degree12 surface is not known (as of 2015), though Yoichi Miyaoka showed that it is at most 645. Sarti has a ... * List of algebraic surfaces References *. *. External links * * Algebraic surfaces Complex surfaces {{algebraicgeometrystub ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Elliptic Curve
In mathematics, an elliptic curve is a smooth, projective, algebraic curve of genus one, on which there is a specified point . An elliptic curve is defined over a field and describes points in , the Cartesian product of with itself. If the field's characteristic is different from 2 and 3, then the curve can be described as a plane algebraic curve which consists of solutions for: :y^2 = x^3 + ax + b for some coefficients and in . The curve is required to be nonsingular, which means that the curve has no cusps or selfintersections. (This is equivalent to the condition , that is, being squarefree in .) It is always understood that the curve is really sitting in the projective plane, with the point being the unique point at infinity. Many sources define an elliptic curve to be simply a curve given by an equation of this form. (When the coefficient field has characteristic 2 or 3, the above equation is not quite general enough to include all nonsingular ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Tuple
In mathematics, a tuple is a finite ordered list (sequence) of elements. An tuple is a sequence (or ordered list) of elements, where is a nonnegative integer. There is only one 0tuple, referred to as ''the empty tuple''. An tuple is defined inductively using the construction of an ordered pair. Mathematicians usually write tuples by listing the elements within parentheses "" and separated by a comma and a space; for example, denotes a 5tuple. Sometimes other symbols are used to surround the elements, such as square brackets "nbsp; or angle brackets "⟨ ⟩". Braces "" are used to specify arrays in some programming languages but not in mathematical expressions, as they are the standard notation for sets. The term ''tuple'' can often occur when discussing other mathematical objects, such as vectors. In computer science, tuples come in many forms. Most typed functional programming languages implement tuples directly as product types, tightly associated with alge ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Coordinates
In geometry, a coordinate system is a system that uses one or more numbers, or coordinates, to uniquely determine the position of the points or other geometric elements on a manifold such as Euclidean space. The order of the coordinates is significant, and they are sometimes identified by their position in an ordered tuple and sometimes by a letter, as in "the ''x''coordinate". The coordinates are taken to be real numbers in elementary mathematics, but may be complex numbers or elements of a more abstract system such as a commutative ring. The use of a coordinate system allows problems in geometry to be translated into problems about numbers and ''vice versa''; this is the basis of analytic geometry. Common coordinate systems Number line The simplest example of a coordinate system is the identification of points on a line with real numbers using the '' number line''. In this system, an arbitrary point ''O'' (the ''origin'') is chosen on a given line. The coordinate of ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Equation Solving
In mathematics, to solve an equation is to find its solutions, which are the values (numbers, functions, sets, etc.) that fulfill the condition stated by the equation, consisting generally of two expressions related by an equals sign. When seeking a solution, one or more variables are designated as ''unknowns''. A solution is an assignment of values to the unknown variables that makes the equality in the equation true. In other words, a solution is a value or a collection of values (one for each unknown) such that, when substituted for the unknowns, the equation becomes an equality. A solution of an equation is often called a root of the equation, particularly but not only for polynomial equations. The set of all solutions of an equation is its solution set. An equation may be solved either numerically or symbolically. Solving an equation ''numerically'' means that only numbers are admitted as solutions. Solving an equation ''symbolically'' means that expressions can be use ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Number Theory
Number theory (or arithmetic or higher arithmetic in older usage) is a branch of pure mathematics devoted primarily to the study of the integers and integervalued functions. German mathematician Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777–1855) said, "Mathematics is the queen of the sciences—and number theory is the queen of mathematics."German original: "Die Mathematik ist die Königin der Wissenschaften, und die Arithmetik ist die Königin der Mathematik." Number theorists study prime numbers as well as the properties of mathematical objects made out of integers (for example, rational numbers) or defined as generalizations of the integers (for example, algebraic integers). Integers can be considered either in themselves or as solutions to equations ( Diophantine geometry). Questions in number theory are often best understood through the study of analytical objects (for example, the Riemann zeta function) that encode properties of the integers, primes or other numbertheoretic obj ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Complex Analysis
Complex analysis, traditionally known as the theory of functions of a complex variable, is the branch of mathematical analysis that investigates Function (mathematics), functions of complex numbers. It is helpful in many branches of mathematics, including algebraic geometry, number theory, analytic combinatorics, applied mathematics; as well as in physics, including the branches of hydrodynamics, thermodynamics, and particularly quantum mechanics. By extension, use of complex analysis also has applications in engineering fields such as nuclear engineering, nuclear, aerospace engineering, aerospace, mechanical engineering, mechanical and electrical engineering. As a differentiable function of a complex variable is equal to its Taylor series (that is, it is Analyticity of holomorphic functions, analytic), complex analysis is particularly concerned with analytic functions of a complex variable (that is, holomorphic functions). History Complex analysis is one of the classical ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Topology
In mathematics, topology (from the Greek words , and ) is concerned with the properties of a geometric object that are preserved under continuous deformations, such as stretching, twisting, crumpling, and bending; that is, without closing holes, opening holes, tearing, gluing, or passing through itself. A topological space is a set endowed with a structure, called a '' topology'', which allows defining continuous deformation of subspaces, and, more generally, all kinds of continuity. Euclidean spaces, and, more generally, metric spaces are examples of a topological space, as any distance or metric defines a topology. The deformations that are considered in topology are homeomorphisms and homotopies. A property that is invariant under such deformations is a topological property. Basic examples of topological properties are: the dimension, which allows distinguishing between a line and a surface; compactness, which allows distinguishing between a line and a circle; ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Point At Infinity
In geometry, a point at infinity or ideal point is an idealized limiting point at the "end" of each line. In the case of an affine plane (including the Euclidean plane), there is one ideal point for each pencil of parallel lines of the plane. Adjoining these points produces a projective plane, in which no point can be distinguished, if we "forget" which points were added. This holds for a geometry over any field, and more generally over any division ring. In the real case, a point at infinity completes a line into a topologically closed curve. In higher dimensions, all the points at infinity form a projective subspace of one dimension less than that of the whole projective space to which they belong. A point at infinity can also be added to the complex line (which may be thought of as the complex plane), thereby turning it into a closed surface known as the complex projective line, CP1, also called the Riemann sphere (when complex numbers are mapped to each point). In t ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Inflection Point
In differential calculus and differential geometry, an inflection point, point of inflection, flex, or inflection (British English: inflexion) is a point on a smooth plane curve at which the curvature changes sign. In particular, in the case of the graph of a function, it is a point where the function changes from being concave (concave downward) to convex (concave upward), or vice versa. For the graph of a function of differentiability class (''f'', its first derivative ''f, and its second derivative ''f'''', exist and are continuous), the condition ''f'' = 0'' can also be used to find an inflection point since a point of ''f'' = 0'' must be passed to change ''f'''' from a positive value (concave upward) to a negative value (concave downward) or vice versa as ''f'''' is continuous; an inflection point of the curve is where ''f'' = 0'' and changes its sign at the point (from positive to negative or from negative to positive). A point where the second derivative vanishes b ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Singular Point Of A Curve
In geometry, a singular point on a curve is one where the curve is not given by a smooth embedding of a parameter. The precise definition of a singular point depends on the type of curve being studied. Algebraic curves in the plane Algebraic curves in the plane may be defined as the set of points satisfying an equation of the form f(x,y) = 0, where is a polynomial function If is expanded as f = a_0 + b_0 x + b_1 y + c_0 x^2 + 2c_1 xy + c_2 y^2 + \cdots If the origin is on the curve then . If then the implicit function theorem guarantees there is a smooth function so that the curve has the form near the origin. Similarly, if then there is a smooth function so that the curve has the form near the origin. In either case, there is a smooth map from to the plane which defines the curve in the neighborhood of the origin. Note that at the origin b_0 = \frac, \; b_1 = \frac, so the curve is nonsingular or ''regular'' at the origin if at least one of the partial derivatives o ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 