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Yield Spread
Yield may refer to: Measures of output/function Computer science * Yield (multithreading) is an action that occurs in a computer program during multithreading * See generator (computer programming) Physics/chemistry * Yield (chemistry), the amount of product obtained in a chemical reaction ** The arrow symbol in a chemical equation * Yield (engineering), yield strength of a material as defined in engineering and material science * Fission product yield * Nuclear weapon yield Earth science * Crop yield, measurement of the amount of a crop harvested, or animal products such as wool, meat or milk produced, per unit area of land ** Yield (wine), the amount of grapes or wine that is produced per unit surface of vineyard * Ecological yield, the harvestable population growth of an ecosystem, most commonly measured in forestry and fishery * Specific yield, a measure of aquifer capacity * Yield (hydrology), the volume of water escaping from a spring Production/manufacturing * Yield (ca ...
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Yield (multithreading)
In computer science, yield is an action that occurs in a computer program during multithreading, of forcing a processor to relinquish control of the current running thread, and sending it to the end of the running queue, of the same scheduling priority. Examples Different programming languages implement yielding in various ways. *pthread_yield() in the language C, a low level implementation, provided by POSIX Threads *std::this_thread::yield() in the language C++, introduced in C++11. * The ''Yield method'' is provided in various object-oriented programming languages with multithreading support, such as C# and Java. OOP languages generally provide class abstractions for thread objects. **yield in Kotlin In coroutines Coroutines are a fine-grained concurrency primitive, which may be required to yield explicitly. They may enable specifying another function to take control. Coroutines that explicitly yield allow cooperative multitasking. See also * Coroutines * Java ...
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Ecological Yield
Ecological yield is the harvestable population growth of an ecosystem. It is most commonly measured in forestry: sustainable forestry is defined as that which does not harvest more wood in a year than has grown in that year, within a given patch of forest. However, the concept is also applicable to water, soil, and any other aspect of an ecosystem which can be both harvested and renewed—called renewable resources. The carrying capacity of an ecosystem is reduced over time if more than the amount which is "renewed" (refreshed or regrown or rebuilt) is consumed. Ecosystem services analysis calculates the global yield of the Earth's biosphere to humans as a whole. This is said to be greater in size than the entire human economy. However, it is more than just yield, but also the natural processes that increase biodiversity and conserve habitat which result in the total value of these services. "Yield" of ecological commodities like wood or water, useful to humans, is only a pa ...
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Dividend Yield
The dividend yield or dividend–price ratio of a share is the dividend per share, divided by the price per share. It is also a company's total annual dividend payments divided by its market capitalization, assuming the number of shares is constant. It is often expressed as a percentage. Dividend yield is used to calculate the earning on investment (shares) considering only the returns in the form of total dividends declared by the company during the year. Its reciprocal is the price/dividend ratio. Preferred share dividend yield Nominal yield Dividend payments on preferred stocks ("preference shares" in the UK) are set out in the prospectus. The name of the preferred share will typically include its nominal yield relative to the issue price: for example, a 6% preferred share. However, the dividend may under some circumstances be passed or reduced. Current yield The current yield is the ratio of the annual dividend to the current market price, which will vary over time. Yield ...
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Yield (finance)
In finance, the yield on a security is a measure of the ex-ante return to a holder of the security. It is one component of return on an investment, the other component being the change in the market price of the security. It is a measure applied to fixed income securities, common stocks, preferred stocks, convertible stocks and bonds, annuities and real estate investments. There are various types of yield, and the method of calculation depends on the particular type of yield and the type of security. Because of these differences, yield comparisons between different types of financial products should be treated with caution. Fixed income securities The coupon rate (or nominal rate) on a fixed income security is the interest that the issuer agrees to pay to the security holder each year, expressed as a percentage of the security's principal amount (par value). The current yield is the ratio of the annual interest (coupon) payment and the bond's market price. The yield to matu ...
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Recipe
A recipe is a set of instructions that describes how to prepare or make something, especially a dish of prepared food. A sub-recipe or subrecipe is a recipe for an ingredient that will be called for in the instructions for the main recipe. History Early examples The earliest known written recipes date to 1730 BC and were recorded on cuneiform tablets found in Mesopotamia. Other early written recipes date from approximately 1600 BC and come from an Akkadian tablet from southern Babylonia. There are also works in ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs depicting the preparation of food. Many ancient Greek recipes are known. Mithaecus's cookbook was an early one, but most of it has been lost; Athenaeus quotes one short recipe in his ''Deipnosophistae''. Athenaeus mentions many other cookbooks, all of them lost.Andrew Dalby, ''Food in the Ancient World from A to Z'', 2003. p. 97-98. Roman recipes are known starting in the 2nd century BCE with Cato the Elder's '' De Agri Cultura''. Man ...
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Semiconductor Device Fabrication
Semiconductor device fabrication is the process used to manufacture semiconductor devices, typically integrated circuit (IC) chips such as modern computer processors, microcontrollers, and memory chips such as NAND flash and DRAM that are present in everyday electrical and electronic devices. It is a multiple-step sequence of photolithographic and chemical processing steps (such as surface passivation, thermal oxidation, planar diffusion and junction isolation) during which electronic circuits are gradually created on a wafer made of pure semiconducting material. Silicon is almost always used, but various compound semiconductors are used for specialized applications. The entire manufacturing process takes time, from start to packaged chips ready for shipment, at least six to eight weeks (tape-out only, not including the circuit design) and is performed in highly specialized semiconductor fabrication plants, also called foundries or fabs. All fabrication takes p ...
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Throughput Yield
First-pass yield (FPY), also known as throughput yield (TPY), is defined as the number of units coming out of a process divided by the number of units going into that process over a specified period of time. Example Consider the following: You have a process that is divided into four sub-processes: A, B, C and D. Assume that you have 100 units entering process A. To calculate first time yield (FTY) you would: #Calculate the yield (number out of step/number into step) of each step. #Multiply these together. For example: (# units leaving the process as good parts) / (# units put into the process) = FTY *100 units enter A and 90 leave as good parts. The FTY for process A is 90/100 = 0.9000 *90 units go into B and 80 leave as good parts. The FTY for process B is 80/90 = 0.8889 *80 units go into C and 75 leave as good parts. The FTY for C is 75/80 = 0.9375 *75 units go into D and 70 leave as good parts. The FTY for D is 70/75 = 0.9333 The total first time yield is equal to FTYofA * ...
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Yield (casting)
In metalworking and jewelry making, casting is a process in which a liquid metal is delivered into a mold (usually by a crucible) that contains a negative impression (i.e., a three-dimensional negative image) of the intended shape. The metal is poured into the mold through a hollow channel called a sprue. The metal and mold are then cooled, and the metal part (the ''casting'') is extracted. Casting is most often used for making complex shapes that would be difficult or uneconomical to make by other methods. Casting processes have been known for thousands of years, and have been widely used for sculpture (especially in bronze), jewelry in precious metals, and weapons and tools. Highly engineered castings are found in 90 percent of durable goods, including cars, trucks, aerospace, trains, mining and construction equipment, oil wells, appliances, pipes, hydrants, wind turbines, nuclear plants, medical devices, defense products, toys, and more. Traditional techniques include lost ...
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Yield (hydrology)
The term yield is used to describe the volume of water escaping from a spring over a certain period of time, the discharge quantity of which is measured in /sMurawski & Meyer (2010), p. 133. Keywords ''Quelle'', ''Quellschüttung''. Measurement methods include volume–filling-time measurement and water level measurement. The discharge of a spring can fluctuate to a greater or lesser extent depending on precipitation and evaporation. Karst spring A karst spring or karstic spring is a spring (outflow of groundwater) that is part of a karst hydrological system. Description Because of their often conical or inverted bowl shape, karst springs are also known in German-speaking lands as a ''To ...s show particularly large time-dependent differences in the discharge. References Bibliography Murawski, Hans and Wilhelm Meyer (2010). ''Geologisches Wörterbuch''. 12th edn. Heidelberg: Spectrum. Limnology Hydrogeology {{hydrology-stub ...
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Aquifer
An aquifer is an underground layer of water-bearing, permeable rock, rock fractures, or unconsolidated materials ( gravel, sand, or silt). Groundwater from aquifers can be extracted using a water well. Aquifers vary greatly in their characteristics. The study of water flow in aquifers and the characterization of aquifers is called hydrogeology. Related terms include aquitard, which is a bed of low permeability along an aquifer, and aquiclude (or ''aquifuge''), which is a solid, impermeable area underlying or overlying an aquifer, the pressure of which could create a confined aquifer. The classification of aquifers is as follows: Saturated versus unsaturated; aquifers versus aquitards; confined versus unconfined; isotropic versus anisotropic; porous, karst, or fractured; transboundary aquifer. Challenges for using groundwater include: overdrafting (extracting groundwater beyond the equilibrium yield of the aquifer), groundwater-related subsidence of land, groundwater beco ...
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Specific Yield
In the field of hydrogeology, ''storage properties'' are physical properties that characterize the capacity of an aquifer to release groundwater. These properties are storativity (S), specific storage (Ss) and specific yield (Sy). According to ''Groundwater'', by Freeze and Cherry (1979), specific storage, S_s −1 of a saturated aquifer is defined as the volume of water that a unit volume of the aquifer releases from storage under a unit decline in hydraulic head. They are often determined using some combination of field tests (e.g., aquifer tests) and laboratory tests on aquifer material samples. Recently, these properties have been also determined using remote sensing data derived from Interferometric synthetic-aperture radar. Storativity Storativity or the storage coefficient is the volume of water released from storage per unit decline in hydraulic head in the aquifer, per unit area of the aquifer. Storativity is a dimensionless quantity, and is always greater than 0. :S = ...
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Fishery
Fishery can mean either the enterprise of raising or harvesting fish and other aquatic life; or more commonly, the site where such enterprise takes place ( a.k.a. fishing ground). Commercial fisheries include wild fisheries and fish farms, both in freshwater waterbodies (about 10% of all catch) and the oceans (about 90%). About 500 million people worldwide are economically dependent on fisheries. 171 million tonnes of fish were produced in 2016, but overfishing is an increasing problem — causing declines in some populations. Because of their economic and social importance, fisheries are governed by complex fisheries management practices and legal regimes that vary widely across countries. Historically, fisheries were treated with a "first-come, first-served " approach, but recent threats by human overfishing and environmental issues have required increased regulation of fisheries to prevent conflict and increase profitable economic activity on the fishery. Modern juris ...
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