Vertical Tangent
In mathematics, particularly calculus, a vertical tangent is a tangent line that is vertical. Because a vertical line has infinite slope, a function whose graph has a vertical tangent is not differentiable at the point of tangency. Limit definition A function ƒ has a vertical tangent at ''x'' = ''a'' if the difference quotient used to define the derivative has infinite limit: :\lim_\frac = \quad\text\quad\lim_\frac = . The first case corresponds to an upwardsloping vertical tangent, and the second case to a downwardsloping vertical tangent. The graph of ƒ has a vertical tangent at ''x'' = ''a'' if the derivative of ƒ at ''a'' is either positive or negative infinity. For a continuous function, it is often possible to detect a vertical tangent by taking the limit of the derivative. If :\lim_ f'(x) = \text then ƒ must have an upwardsloping vertical tangent at ''x'' = ''a''. Similarly, if :\lim_ f'(x) = \text then ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Vertical Tangent
In mathematics, particularly calculus, a vertical tangent is a tangent line that is vertical. Because a vertical line has infinite slope, a function whose graph has a vertical tangent is not differentiable at the point of tangency. Limit definition A function ƒ has a vertical tangent at ''x'' = ''a'' if the difference quotient used to define the derivative has infinite limit: :\lim_\frac = \quad\text\quad\lim_\frac = . The first case corresponds to an upwardsloping vertical tangent, and the second case to a downwardsloping vertical tangent. The graph of ƒ has a vertical tangent at ''x'' = ''a'' if the derivative of ƒ at ''a'' is either positive or negative infinity. For a continuous function, it is often possible to detect a vertical tangent by taking the limit of the derivative. If :\lim_ f'(x) = \text then ƒ must have an upwardsloping vertical tangent at ''x'' = ''a''. Similarly, if :\lim_ f'(x) = \text then ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Mathematics
Mathematics is an area of knowledge that includes the topics of numbers, formulas and related structures, shapes and the spaces in which they are contained, and quantities and their changes. These topics are represented in modern mathematics with the major subdisciplines of number theory, algebra, geometry, and analysis, respectively. There is no general consensus among mathematicians about a common definition for their academic discipline. Most mathematical activity involves the discovery of properties of abstract objects and the use of pure reason to prove them. These objects consist of either abstractions from nature orin modern mathematicsentities that are stipulated to have certain properties, called axioms. A ''proof'' consists of a succession of applications of deductive rules to already established results. These results include previously proved theorems, axioms, andin case of abstraction from naturesome basic properties that are considered true starting points of t ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Calculus
Calculus, originally called infinitesimal calculus or "the calculus of infinitesimals", is the mathematical study of continuous change, in the same way that geometry is the study of shape, and algebra is the study of generalizations of arithmetic operations. It has two major branches, differential calculus and integral calculus; the former concerns instantaneous rates of change, and the slopes of curves, while the latter concerns accumulation of quantities, and areas under or between curves. These two branches are related to each other by the fundamental theorem of calculus, and they make use of the fundamental notions of convergence of infinite sequences and infinite series to a welldefined limit. Infinitesimal calculus was developed independently in the late 17th century by Isaac Newton and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. Later work, including codifying the idea of limits, put these developments on a more solid conceptual footing. Today, calculus has widespread uses in scienc ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Tangent
In geometry, the tangent line (or simply tangent) to a plane curve at a given point is the straight line that "just touches" the curve at that point. Leibniz defined it as the line through a pair of infinitely close points on the curve. More precisely, a straight line is said to be a tangent of a curve at a point if the line passes through the point on the curve and has slope , where ''f'' is the derivative of ''f''. A similar definition applies to space curves and curves in ''n''dimensional Euclidean space. As it passes through the point where the tangent line and the curve meet, called the point of tangency, the tangent line is "going in the same direction" as the curve, and is thus the best straightline approximation to the curve at that point. The tangent line to a point on a differentiable curve can also be thought of as a '' tangent line approximation'', the graph of the affine function that best approximates the original function at the given point. Similarly ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Vertical Direction
In astronomy, geography, and related sciences and contexts, a '' direction'' or '' plane'' passing by a given point is said to be vertical if it contains the local gravity direction at that point. Conversely, a direction or plane is said to be horizontal if it is perpendicular to the vertical direction. In general, something that is vertical can be drawn from up to down (or down to up), such as the yaxis in the Cartesian coordinate system. Historical definition The word ''horizontal'' is derived from the Latin , which derives from the Greek , meaning 'separating' or 'marking a boundary'. The word ''vertical'' is derived from the late Latin ', which is from the same root as ''vertex'', meaning 'highest point' or more literally the 'turning point' such as in a whirlpool. Girard Desargues defined the vertical to be perpendicular to the horizon in his 1636 book ''Perspective''. Geophysical definition The plumb line and spirit level In physics, engineering and construction, t ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Infinity
Infinity is that which is boundless, endless, or larger than any natural number. It is often denoted by the infinity symbol . Since the time of the ancient Greeks, the philosophical nature of infinity was the subject of many discussions among philosophers. In the 17th century, with the introduction of the infinity symbol and the infinitesimal calculus, mathematicians began to work with infinite series and what some mathematicians (including l'Hôpital and Bernoulli) regarded as infinitely small quantities, but infinity continued to be associated with endless processes. As mathematicians struggled with the foundation of calculus, it remained unclear whether infinity could be considered as a number or magnitude and, if so, how this could be done. At the end of the 19th century, Georg Cantor enlarged the mathematical study of infinity by studying infinite sets and infinite numbers, showing that they can be of various sizes. For example, if a line is viewed as the set of ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Slope
In mathematics, the slope or gradient of a line is a number that describes both the ''direction'' and the ''steepness'' of the line. Slope is often denoted by the letter ''m''; there is no clear answer to the question why the letter ''m'' is used for slope, but its earliest use in English appears in O'Brien (1844) who wrote the equation of a straight line as and it can also be found in Todhunter (1888) who wrote it as "''y'' = ''mx'' + ''c''". Slope is calculated by finding the ratio of the "vertical change" to the "horizontal change" between (any) two distinct points on a line. Sometimes the ratio is expressed as a quotient ("rise over run"), giving the same number for every two distinct points on the same line. A line that is decreasing has a negative "rise". The line may be practical – as set by a road surveyor, or in a diagram that models a road or a roof either as a description or as a plan. The ''steepness'', incline, or grade of a line is measured by the absolu ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Function (mathematics)
In mathematics, a function from a set to a set assigns to each element of exactly one element of .; the words map, mapping, transformation, correspondence, and operator are often used synonymously. The set is called the domain of the function and the set is called the codomain of the function.Codomain ''Encyclopedia of Mathematics'Codomain. ''Encyclopedia of Mathematics''/ref> The earliest known approach to the notion of function can be traced back to works of Persian mathematicians AlBiruni and Sharaf alDin alTusi. Functions were originally the idealization of how a varying quantity depends on another quantity. For example, the position of a planet is a ''function'' of time. Historically, the concept was elaborated with the infinitesimal calculus at the end of the 17th century, and, until the 19th century, the functions that were considered were differentiable (that is, they had a high degree of regularity). The concept of a function was formalized at the end of ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Graph Of A Function
In mathematics, the graph of a function f is the set of ordered pairs (x, y), where f(x) = y. In the common case where x and f(x) are real numbers, these pairs are Cartesian coordinates of points in twodimensional space and thus form a subset of this plane. In the case of functions of two variables, that is functions whose domain consists of pairs (x, y), the graph usually refers to the set of ordered triples (x, y, z) where f(x,y) = z, instead of the pairs ((x, y), z) as in the definition above. This set is a subset of threedimensional space; for a continuous realvalued function of two real variables, it is a surface. In science, engineering, technology, finance, and other areas, graphs are tools used for many purposes. In the simplest case one variable is plotted as a function of another, typically using rectangular axes; see '' Plot (graphics)'' for details. A graph of a function is a special case of a relation. In the modern foundations of mathematics, and, ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Differentiable Function
In mathematics, a differentiable function of one real variable is a function whose derivative exists at each point in its domain. In other words, the graph of a differentiable function has a nonvertical tangent line at each interior point in its domain. A differentiable function is smooth (the function is locally well approximated as a linear function at each interior point) and does not contain any break, angle, or cusp. If is an interior point in the domain of a function , then is said to be ''differentiable at'' if the derivative f'(x_0) exists. In other words, the graph of has a nonvertical tangent line at the point . is said to be differentiable on if it is differentiable at every point of . is said to be ''continuously differentiable'' if its derivative is also a continuous function over the domain of the function f. Generally speaking, is said to be of class if its first k derivatives f^(x), f^(x), \ldots, f^(x) exist and are continuous over the domain of the fu ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Difference Quotient
In singlevariable calculus, the difference quotient is usually the name for the expression : \frac which when taken to the limit as ''h'' approaches 0 gives the derivative of the function ''f''. The name of the expression stems from the fact that it is the quotient of the difference of values of the function by the difference of the corresponding values of its argument (the latter is (''x'' + ''h'')  ''x'' = ''h'' in this case). The difference quotient is a measure of the average rate of change of the function over an interval (in this case, an interval of length ''h''). The limit of the difference quotient (i.e., the derivative) is thus the instantaneous rate of change. By a slight change in notation (and viewpoint), for an interval 'a'', ''b'' the difference quotient : \frac is called the mean (or average) value of the derivative of ''f'' over the interval 'a'', ''b'' This name is justified by the mean value theorem, which states that for a differentiable function '' ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Limit Of A Function
Although the function (sin ''x'')/''x'' is not defined at zero, as ''x'' becomes closer and closer to zero, (sin ''x'')/''x'' becomes arbitrarily close to 1. In other words, the limit of (sin ''x'')/''x'', as ''x'' approaches zero, equals 1. In mathematics, the limit of a function is a fundamental concept in calculus and analysis concerning the behavior of that function near a particular input. Formal definitions, first devised in the early 19th century, are given below. Informally, a function ''f'' assigns an output ''f''(''x'') to every input ''x''. We say that the function has a limit ''L'' at an input ''p,'' if ''f''(''x'') gets closer and closer to ''L'' as ''x'' moves closer and closer to ''p''. More specifically, when ''f'' is applied to any input ''sufficiently'' close to ''p'', the output value is forced ''arbitrarily'' close to ''L''. On the other hand, if some inputs very close to ''p'' are taken to outputs that stay a fixed distance apart, ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 