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Unit Square
In mathematics, a unit square is a square whose sides have length . Often, ''the'' unit square refers specifically to the square in the Cartesian plane with corners at the four points ), , , and . Cartesian coordinates In a Cartesian coordinate system with coordinates , a unit square is defined as a square consisting of the points where both and lie in a closed unit interval from to . That is, a unit square is the Cartesian product , where denotes the closed unit interval. Complex coordinates The unit square can also be thought of as a subset of the complex plane, the topological space formed by the complex number In mathematics, a complex number is an element of a number system that extends the real numbers with a specific element denoted , called the imaginary unit and satisfying the equation i^= -1; every complex number can be expressed in the fo ...s. In this view, the four corners of the unit square are at the four complex numbers , , , and . Rational ...
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Unit Square
In mathematics, a unit square is a square whose sides have length . Often, ''the'' unit square refers specifically to the square in the Cartesian plane with corners at the four points ), , , and . Cartesian coordinates In a Cartesian coordinate system with coordinates , a unit square is defined as a square consisting of the points where both and lie in a closed unit interval from to . That is, a unit square is the Cartesian product , where denotes the closed unit interval. Complex coordinates The unit square can also be thought of as a subset of the complex plane, the topological space formed by the complex number In mathematics, a complex number is an element of a number system that extends the real numbers with a specific element denoted , called the imaginary unit and satisfying the equation i^= -1; every complex number can be expressed in the fo ...s. In this view, the four corners of the unit square are at the four complex numbers , , , and . Rational ...
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Mathematics
Mathematics is an area of knowledge that includes the topics of numbers, formulas and related structures, shapes and the spaces in which they are contained, and quantities and their changes. These topics are represented in modern mathematics with the major subdisciplines of number theory, algebra, geometry, and mathematical analysis, analysis, respectively. There is no general consensus among mathematicians about a common definition for their academic discipline. Most mathematical activity involves the discovery of properties of mathematical object, abstract objects and the use of pure reason to proof (mathematics), prove them. These objects consist of either abstraction (mathematics), abstractions from nature orin modern mathematicsentities that are stipulated to have certain properties, called axioms. A ''proof'' consists of a succession of applications of inference rule, deductive rules to already established results. These results include previously proved theorems, axioms ...
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Square (geometry)
In Euclidean geometry, a square is a regular quadrilateral, which means that it has four equal sides and four equal angles (90- degree angles, π/2 radian angles, or right angles). It can also be defined as a rectangle with two equal-length adjacent sides. It is the only regular polygon whose internal angle, central angle, and external angle are all equal (90°), and whose diagonals are all equal in length. A square with vertices ''ABCD'' would be denoted . Characterizations A convex quadrilateral is a square if and only if it is any one of the following: * A rectangle with two adjacent equal sides * A rhombus with a right vertex angle * A rhombus with all angles equal * A parallelogram with one right vertex angle and two adjacent equal sides * A quadrilateral with four equal sides and four right angles * A quadrilateral where the diagonals are equal, and are the perpendicular bisectors of each other (i.e., a rhombus with equal diagonals) * A convex quadrilateral wi ...
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Cartesian Coordinate System
A Cartesian coordinate system (, ) in a plane is a coordinate system that specifies each point uniquely by a pair of numerical coordinates, which are the signed distances to the point from two fixed perpendicular oriented lines, measured in the same unit of length. Each reference coordinate line is called a ''coordinate axis'' or just ''axis'' (plural ''axes'') of the system, and the point where they meet is its ''origin'', at ordered pair . The coordinates can also be defined as the positions of the perpendicular projections of the point onto the two axes, expressed as signed distances from the origin. One can use the same principle to specify the position of any point in three-dimensional space by three Cartesian coordinates, its signed distances to three mutually perpendicular planes (or, equivalently, by its perpendicular projection onto three mutually perpendicular lines). In general, ''n'' Cartesian coordinates (an element of real ''n''-space) specify the point in an ...
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Unit Interval
In mathematics, the unit interval is the closed interval , that is, the set of all real numbers that are greater than or equal to 0 and less than or equal to 1. It is often denoted ' (capital letter ). In addition to its role in real analysis, the unit interval is used to study homotopy theory in the field of topology. In the literature, the term "unit interval" is sometimes applied to the other shapes that an interval from 0 to 1 could take: , , and . However, the notation ' is most commonly reserved for the closed interval . Properties The unit interval is a complete metric space, homeomorphic to the extended real number line. As a topological space, it is compact, contractible, path connected and locally path connected. The Hilbert cube is obtained by taking a topological product of countably many copies of the unit interval. In mathematical analysis, the unit interval is a one-dimensional analytical manifold whose boundary consists of the two points 0 and 1. ...
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Cartesian Product
In mathematics, specifically set theory, the Cartesian product of two sets ''A'' and ''B'', denoted ''A''×''B'', is the set of all ordered pairs where ''a'' is in ''A'' and ''b'' is in ''B''. In terms of set-builder notation, that is : A\times B = \. A table can be created by taking the Cartesian product of a set of rows and a set of columns. If the Cartesian product is taken, the cells of the table contain ordered pairs of the form . One can similarly define the Cartesian product of ''n'' sets, also known as an ''n''-fold Cartesian product, which can be represented by an ''n''-dimensional array, where each element is an ''n''- tuple. An ordered pair is a 2-tuple or couple. More generally still, one can define the Cartesian product of an indexed family of sets. The Cartesian product is named after René Descartes, whose formulation of analytic geometry gave rise to the concept, which is further generalized in terms of direct product. Examples A deck of cards A ...
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Complex Plane
In mathematics, the complex plane is the plane formed by the complex numbers, with a Cartesian coordinate system such that the -axis, called the real axis, is formed by the real numbers, and the -axis, called the imaginary axis, is formed by the imaginary numbers. The complex plane allows a geometric interpretation of complex numbers. Under addition, they add like vectors. The multiplication of two complex numbers can be expressed more easily in polar coordinates—the magnitude or ''modulus'' of the product is the product of the two absolute values, or moduli, and the angle or ''argument'' of the product is the sum of the two angles, or arguments. In particular, multiplication by a complex number of modulus 1 acts as a rotation. The complex plane is sometimes known as the Argand plane or Gauss plane. Notational conventions Complex numbers In complex analysis, the complex numbers are customarily represented by the symbol ''z'', which can be separated into its real (''x'') an ...
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Complex Number
In mathematics, a complex number is an element of a number system that extends the real numbers with a specific element denoted , called the imaginary unit and satisfying the equation i^= -1; every complex number can be expressed in the form a + bi, where and are real numbers. Because no real number satisfies the above equation, was called an imaginary number by René Descartes. For the complex number a+bi, is called the , and is called the . The set of complex numbers is denoted by either of the symbols \mathbb C or . Despite the historical nomenclature "imaginary", complex numbers are regarded in the mathematical sciences as just as "real" as the real numbers and are fundamental in many aspects of the scientific description of the natural world. Complex numbers allow solutions to all polynomial equations, even those that have no solutions in real numbers. More precisely, the fundamental theorem of algebra asserts that every non-constant polynomial equation with r ...
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Rational Number
In mathematics, a rational number is a number that can be expressed as the quotient or fraction of two integers, a numerator and a non-zero denominator . For example, is a rational number, as is every integer (e.g. ). The set of all rational numbers, also referred to as "the rationals", the field of rationals or the field of rational numbers is usually denoted by boldface , or blackboard bold \mathbb. A rational number is a real number. The real numbers that are rational are those whose decimal expansion either terminates after a finite number of digits (example: ), or eventually begins to repeat the same finite sequence of digits over and over (example: ). This statement is true not only in base 10, but also in every other integer base, such as the binary and hexadecimal ones (see ). A real number that is not rational is called irrational. Irrational numbers include , , , and . Since the set of rational numbers is countable, and the set of real numbers is ...
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Unit Circle
In mathematics, a unit circle is a circle of unit radius—that is, a radius of 1. Frequently, especially in trigonometry, the unit circle is the circle of radius 1 centered at the origin (0, 0) in the Cartesian coordinate system in the Euclidean plane. In topology, it is often denoted as because it is a one-dimensional unit -sphere. If is a point on the unit circle's circumference, then and are the lengths of the legs of a right triangle whose hypotenuse has length 1. Thus, by the Pythagorean theorem, and satisfy the equation x^2 + y^2 = 1. Since for all , and since the reflection of any point on the unit circle about the - or -axis is also on the unit circle, the above equation holds for all points on the unit circle, not only those in the first quadrant. The interior of the unit circle is called the open unit disk, while the interior of the unit circle combined with the unit circle itself is called the closed unit disk. One may also use other notions of "dist ...
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Unit Cube
A unit cube, more formally a cube of side 1, is a cube whose sides are 1 unit long.. See in particulap. 671. The volume of a 3-dimensional unit cube is 1 cubic unit, and its total surface area is 6 square units.. Unit hypercube The term ''unit cube'' or unit hypercube is also used for hypercubes, or "cubes" in ''n''-dimensional spaces, for values of ''n'' other than 3 and edge length 1. Sometimes the term "unit cube" refers in specific to the set , 1sup>''n'' of all ''n''-tuples of numbers in the interval , 1 The length of the longest diagonal of a unit hypercube of ''n'' dimensions is \sqrt n, the square root of ''n'' and the (Euclidean) length of the vector (1,1,1,....1,1) in ''n''-dimensional space. See also *Doubling the cube * K-cell * Robbins constant, the average distance between two random points in a unit cube * Tychonoff cube, an infinite-dimensional analogue of the unit cube *Unit square *Unit sphere In mathematics, a unit sphere is simply a ...
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Unit Sphere
In mathematics, a unit sphere is simply a sphere of radius one around a given center. More generally, it is the set of points of distance 1 from a fixed central point, where different norms can be used as general notions of "distance". A unit ball is the closed set of points of distance less than or equal to 1 from a fixed central point. Usually the center is at the origin of the space, so one speaks of "the unit ball" or "the unit sphere". Special cases are the unit circle and the unit disk. The importance of the unit sphere is that any sphere can be transformed to a unit sphere by a combination of translation and scaling. In this way the properties of spheres in general can be reduced to the study of the unit sphere. Unit spheres and balls in Euclidean space In Euclidean space of ''n'' dimensions, the -dimensional unit sphere is the set of all points (x_1, \ldots, x_n) which satisfy the equation : x_1^2 + x_2^2 + \cdots + x_n ^2 = 1. The ''n''-dimensional open unit ball ...
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