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 Unit (ring Theory) In algebra, a unit of a ring is an invertible element for the multiplication of the ring. That is, an element of a ring is a unit if there exists in such that vu = uv = 1, where is the multiplicative identity; the element is unique for this property and is called the multiplicative inverse of . The set of units of forms a group under multiplication, called the group of units or unit group of . Other notations for the unit group are , , and (from the German term ). Less commonly, the term ''unit'' is sometimes used to refer to the element of the ring, in expressions like ''ring with a unit'' or ''unit ring'', and also unit matrix. Because of this ambiguity, is more commonly called the "unity" or the "identity" of the ring, and the phrases "ring with unity" or a "ring with identity" may be used to emphasize that one is considering a ring instead of a rng. Examples The multiplicative identity and its additive inverse are always units. More generally, any root of un ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Algebra Algebra () is one of the broad areas of mathematics. Roughly speaking, algebra is the study of mathematical symbols and the rules for manipulating these symbols in formulas; it is a unifying thread of almost all of mathematics. Elementary algebra deals with the manipulation of variables (commonly represented by Roman letters) as if they were numbers and is therefore essential in all applications of mathematics. Abstract algebra is the name given, mostly in education, to the study of algebraic structures such as groups, rings, and fields (the term is no more in common use outside educational context). Linear algebra, which deals with linear equations and linear mappings, is used for modern presentations of geometry, and has many practical applications (in weather forecasting, for example). There are many areas of mathematics that belong to algebra, some having "algebra" in their name, such as commutative algebra, and some not, such as Galois theory. The word ''algebra'' is ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Integers An integer is the number zero (), a positive natural number (, , , etc.) or a negative integer with a minus sign (−1, −2, −3, etc.). The negative numbers are the additive inverses of the corresponding positive numbers. In the language of mathematics, the set of integers is often denoted by the boldface or blackboard bold \mathbb. The set of natural numbers \mathbb is a subset of \mathbb, which in turn is a subset of the set of all rational numbers \mathbb, itself a subset of the real numbers \mathbb. Like the natural numbers, \mathbb is countably infinite. An integer may be regarded as a real number that can be written without a fractional component. For example, 21, 4, 0, and −2048 are integers, while 9.75, , and  are not. The integers form the smallest group and the smallest ring containing the natural numbers. In algebraic number theory, the integers are sometimes qualified as rational integers to distinguish them from the more general algebraic integers. ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Power Series Ring In mathematics, a formal series is an infinite sum that is considered independently from any notion of convergence, and can be manipulated with the usual algebraic operations on series (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, partial sums, etc.). A formal power series is a special kind of formal series, whose terms are of the form a x^n where x^n is the nth power of a variable x (n is a non-negative integer), and a is called the coefficient. Hence, power series can be viewed as a generalization of polynomials, where the number of terms is allowed to be infinite, with no requirements of convergence. Thus, the series may no longer represent a function of its variable, merely a formal sequence of coefficients, in contrast to a power series, which defines a function by taking numerical values for the variable within a radius of convergence. In a formal power series, the x^n are used only as position-holders for the coefficients, so that the coefficient of x^5 is the fifth te ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Domain (ring Theory) In algebra, a domain is a nonzero ring in which implies or .Lam (2001), p. 3 (Sometimes such a ring is said to "have the zero-product property".) Equivalently, a domain is a ring in which 0 is the only left zero divisor (or equivalently, the only right zero divisor). A commutative domain is called an integral domain. Mathematical literature contains multiple variants of the definition of "domain".Some authors also consider the zero ring to be a domain: see Polcino M. & Sehgal (2002), p. 65. Some authors apply the term "domain" also to rngs with the zero-product property; such authors consider ''n''Z to be a domain for each positive integer ''n'': see Lanski (2005), p. 343. But integral domains are always required to be nonzero and to have a 1. Examples and non-examples * The ring Z/6Z is not a domain, because the images of 2 and 3 in this ring are nonzero elements with product 0. More generally, for a positive integer ''n'', the ring Z/''n''Z is a domain if and only ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Nilpotent In mathematics, an element x of a ring R is called nilpotent if there exists some positive integer n, called the index (or sometimes the degree), such that x^n=0. The term was introduced by Benjamin Peirce in the context of his work on the classification of algebras. Examples *This definition can be applied in particular to square matrices. The matrix :: A = \begin 0 & 1 & 0\\ 0 & 0 & 1\\ 0 & 0 & 0 \end :is nilpotent because A^3=0. See nilpotent matrix for more. * In the factor ring \Z/9\Z, the equivalence class of 3 is nilpotent because 32 is congruent to 0 modulo 9. * Assume that two elements a and b in a ring R satisfy ab=0. Then the element c=ba is nilpotent as \beginc^2&=(ba)^2\\ &=b(ab)a\\ &=0.\\ \end An example with matrices (for ''a'', ''b''):A = \begin 0 & 1\\ 0 & 1 \end, \;\; B =\begin 0 & 1\\ 0 & 0 \end. Here AB=0 and BA=B. *By definition, any element of a nilsemigroup is nilpotent. Properties No nilpotent elemen ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Polynomial Ring In mathematics, especially in the field of algebra, a polynomial ring or polynomial algebra is a ring (which is also a commutative algebra) formed from the set of polynomials in one or more indeterminates (traditionally also called variables) with coefficients in another ring, often a field. Often, the term "polynomial ring" refers implicitly to the special case of a polynomial ring in one indeterminate over a field. The importance of such polynomial rings relies on the high number of properties that they have in common with the ring of the integers. Polynomial rings occur and are often fundamental in many parts of mathematics such as number theory, commutative algebra, and algebraic geometry. In ring theory, many classes of rings, such as unique factorization domains, regular rings, group rings, rings of formal power series, Ore polynomials, graded rings, have been introduced for generalizing some properties of polynomial rings. A closely related notion is that of the ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Real Quadratic Field In algebraic number theory, a quadratic field is an algebraic number field of degree two over \mathbf, the rational numbers. Every such quadratic field is some \mathbf(\sqrt) where d is a (uniquely defined) square-free integer different from 0 and 1. If d>0, the corresponding quadratic field is called a real quadratic field, and, if d<0, it is called an imaginary quadratic field or a complex quadratic field, corresponding to whether or not it is a subfield of the field of the real numbers. Quadratic fields have been studied in great depth, initially as part of the theory of binary quadratic forms. There remain some unsolved pro ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Rank Of A Module In mathematics, a finitely generated module is a module that has a finite generating set. A finitely generated module over a ring ''R'' may also be called a finite ''R''-module, finite over ''R'', or a module of finite type. Related concepts include finitely cogenerated modules, finitely presented modules, finitely related modules and coherent modules all of which are defined below. Over a Noetherian ring the concepts of finitely generated, finitely presented and coherent modules coincide. A finitely generated module over a field is simply a finite-dimensional vector space, and a finitely generated module over the integers is simply a finitely generated abelian group. Definition The left ''R''-module ''M'' is finitely generated if there exist ''a''1, ''a''2, ..., ''a''''n'' in ''M'' such that for any ''x'' in ''M'', there exist ''r''1, ''r''2, ..., ''r''''n'' in ''R'' with ''x'' = ''r''1''a''1 + ''r''2''a''2 + ... + ''r''''n''''a''''n''. The set is referred to as a generati ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Dirichlet's Unit Theorem In mathematics, Dirichlet's unit theorem is a basic result in algebraic number theory due to Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet. It determines the rank of the group of units in the ring of algebraic integers of a number field . The regulator is a positive real number that determines how "dense" the units are. The statement is that the group of units is finitely generated and has rank (maximal number of multiplicatively independent elements) equal to where is the ''number of real embeddings'' and the ''number of conjugate pairs of complex embeddings'' of . This characterisation of and is based on the idea that there will be as many ways to embed in the complex number field as the degree n = : \mathbb/math>; these will either be into the real numbers, or pairs of embeddings related by complex conjugation, so that Note that if is Galois over \mathbb then either or . Other ways of determining and are * use the primitive element theorem to write K = \mathbb(\alpha), and th ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Number Field In mathematics, an algebraic number field (or simply number field) is an extension field K of the field of rational numbers such that the field extension K / \mathbb has finite degree (and hence is an algebraic field extension). Thus K is a field that contains \mathbb and has finite dimension when considered as a vector space over The study of algebraic number fields, and, more generally, of algebraic extensions of the field of rational numbers, is the central topic of algebraic number theory. This study reveals hidden structures behind usual rational numbers, by using algebraic methods. Definition Prerequisites The notion of algebraic number field relies on the concept of a field. A field consists of a set of elements together with two operations, namely addition, and multiplication, and some distributivity assumptions. A prominent example of a field is the field of rational numbers, commonly denoted together with its usual operations of addition and multiplication. ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Ring Of Integers In mathematics, the ring of integers of an algebraic number field K is the ring of all algebraic integers contained in K. An algebraic integer is a root of a monic polynomial with integer coefficients: x^n+c_x^+\cdots+c_0. This ring is often denoted by O_K or \mathcal O_K. Since any integer belongs to K and is an integral element of K, the ring \mathbb is always a subring of O_K. The ring of integers \mathbb is the simplest possible ring of integers. Namely, \mathbb=O_ where \mathbb is the field of rational numbers. And indeed, in algebraic number theory the elements of \mathbb are often called the "rational integers" because of this. The next simplest example is the ring of Gaussian integers \mathbb /math>, consisting of complex numbers whose real and imaginary parts are integers. It is the ring of integers in the number field \mathbb(i) of Gaussian rationals, consisting of complex numbers whose real and imaginary parts are rational numbers. Like the rational integers, \mathb ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Quadratic Integer In number theory, quadratic integers are a generalization of the usual integers to quadratic fields. Quadratic integers are algebraic integers of degree two, that is, solutions of equations of the form : with and (usual) integers. When algebraic integers are considered, the usual integers are often called ''rational integers''. Common examples of quadratic integers are the square roots of rational integers, such as , and the complex number , which generates the Gaussian integers. Another common example is the non-real cubic root of unity , which generates the Eisenstein integers. Quadratic integers occur in the solutions of many Diophantine equations, such as Pell's equations, and other questions related to integral quadratic forms. The study of rings of quadratic integers is basic for many questions of algebraic number theory. History Medieval Indian mathematicians had already discovered a multiplication of quadratic integers of the same , which allowed them to solve some ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu]