Uncountable Set In mathematics, an uncountable set (or uncountably infinite set) is an infinite set that contains too many elements to be countable. The uncountability of a set is closely related to its cardinal number: a set is uncountable if its cardinal number is larger than that of the set of all natural numbers. Characterizations There are many equivalent characterizations of uncountability. A set ''X'' is uncountable if and only if any of the following conditions hold: * There is no injective function (hence no bijection) from ''X'' to the set of natural numbers. * ''X'' is nonempty and for every ω-sequence of elements of ''X'', there exists at least one element of X not included in it. That is, ''X'' is nonempty and there is no surjective function from the natural numbers to ''X''. * The cardinality of ''X'' is neither finite nor equal to \aleph_0 ( aleph-null, the cardinality of the natural numbers). * The set ''X'' has cardinality strictly greater than \aleph_0. The first three of ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Bing]   [Yahoo]   [DuckDuckGo]   [Baidu] picture info Mathematics Mathematics is an area of knowledge that includes the topics of numbers, formulas and related structures, shapes and the spaces in which they are contained, and quantities and their changes. These topics are represented in modern mathematics with the major subdisciplines of number theory, algebra, geometry, and analysis, respectively. There is no general consensus among mathematicians about a common definition for their academic discipline. Most mathematical activity involves the discovery of properties of abstract objects and the use of pure reason to prove them. These objects consist of either abstractions from nature orin modern mathematicsentities that are stipulated to have certain properties, called axioms. A ''proof'' consists of a succession of applications of deductive rules to already established results. These results include previously proved theorems, axioms, andin case of abstraction from naturesome basic properties that are considered true starting points of ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Bing]   [Yahoo]   [DuckDuckGo]   [Baidu] Cardinality Of The Continuum In set theory, the cardinality of the continuum is the cardinality or "size" of the set of real numbers \mathbb R, sometimes called the continuum. It is an infinite cardinal number and is denoted by \mathfrak c (lowercase fraktur "c") or , \mathbb R, . The real numbers \mathbb R are more numerous than the natural numbers \mathbb N. Moreover, \mathbb R has the same number of elements as the power set of \mathbb N. Symbolically, if the cardinality of \mathbb N is denoted as \aleph_0, the cardinality of the continuum is This was proven by Georg Cantor in his uncountability proof of 1874, part of his groundbreaking study of different infinities. The inequality was later stated more simply in his diagonal argument in 1891. Cantor defined cardinality in terms of bijective functions: two sets have the same cardinality if, and only if, there exists a bijective function between them. Between any two real numbers ''a''  \mathfrak c . Alternative explanation for 𝔠 = 2ℵ0 ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Bing]   [Yahoo]   [DuckDuckGo]   [Baidu] picture info Comparability In mathematics, two elements ''x'' and ''y'' of a set ''P'' are said to be comparable with respect to a binary relation ≤ if at least one of ''x'' ≤ ''y'' or ''y'' ≤ ''x'' is true. They are called incomparable if they are not comparable. Rigorous definition A binary relation on a set P is by definition any subset R of P \times P. Given x, y \in P, x R y is written if and only if (x, y) \in R, in which case x is said to be to y by R. An element x \in P is said to be , or (), to an element y \in P if x R y or y R x. Often, a symbol indicating comparison, such as \,,\, \geq, and many others) is used instead of R, in which case x < y is written in place of $x R y,$ which is why the term "comparable" is used. Comparability with respect to $R$ induces a canonical binary relation on $P$; specifically, the induced by $R$ is defined to be the set of all pairs $\left(x, y\right) \in P \times P$ such that $x$ i ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Bing]   [Yahoo]   [DuckDuckGo]   [Baidu] picture info Set Theory Set theory is the branch of mathematical logic that studies sets, which can be informally described as collections of objects. Although objects of any kind can be collected into a set, set theory, as a branch of mathematics, is mostly concerned with those that are relevant to mathematics as a whole. The modern study of set theory was initiated by the German mathematicians Richard Dedekind and Georg Cantor in the 1870s. In particular, Georg Cantor is commonly considered the founder of set theory. The non-formalized systems investigated during this early stage go under the name of ''naive set theory''. After the discovery of paradoxes within naive set theory (such as Russell's paradox, Cantor's paradox and the Burali-Forti paradox) various axiomatic systems were proposed in the early twentieth century, of which Zermelo–Fraenkel set theory (with or without the axiom of choice) is still the best-known and most studied. Set theory is commonly employed as a foundational sys ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Bing]   [Yahoo]   [DuckDuckGo]   [Baidu] Continuum Hypothesis In mathematics, the continuum hypothesis (abbreviated CH) is a hypothesis about the possible sizes of infinite sets. It states that or equivalently, that In Zermelo–Fraenkel set theory with the axiom of choice (ZFC), this is equivalent to the following equation in aleph numbers: 2^=\aleph_1, or even shorter with beth numbers: \beth_1 = \aleph_1. The continuum hypothesis was advanced by Georg Cantor in 1878, and establishing its truth or falsehood is the first of Hilbert's 23 problems presented in 1900. The answer to this problem is independent of ZFC, so that either the continuum hypothesis or its negation can be added as an axiom to ZFC set theory, with the resulting theory being consistent if and only if ZFC is consistent. This independence was proved in 1963 by Paul Cohen, complementing earlier work by Kurt Gödel in 1940. The name of the hypothesis comes from the term '' the continuum'' for the real numbers. History Cantor believed the continuum hypothesis to ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Bing]   [Yahoo]   [DuckDuckGo]   [Baidu] picture info Hilbert's Problems Hilbert's problems are 23 problems in mathematics published by German mathematician David Hilbert in 1900. They were all unsolved at the time, and several proved to be very influential for 20th-century mathematics. Hilbert presented ten of the problems (1, 2, 6, 7, 8, 13, 16, 19, 21, and 22) at the Paris conference of the International Congress of Mathematicians, speaking on August 8 at the Sorbonne. The complete list of 23 problems was published later, in English translation in 1902 by Mary Frances Winston Newson in the ''Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society''. Earlier publications (in the original German) appeared in and Nature and influence of the problems Hilbert's problems ranged greatly in topic and precision. Some of them, like the 3rd problem, which was the first to be solved, or the 8th problem (the Riemann hypothesis), which still remains unresolved, were presented precisely enough to enable a clear affirmative or negative answer. For other problem ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Bing]   [Yahoo]   [DuckDuckGo]   [Baidu] picture info David Hilbert David Hilbert (; ; 23 January 1862 – 14 February 1943) was a German mathematician, one of the most influential mathematicians of the 19th and early 20th centuries. Hilbert discovered and developed a broad range of fundamental ideas in many areas, including invariant theory, the calculus of variations, commutative algebra, algebraic number theory, the foundations of geometry, spectral theory of operators and its application to integral equations, mathematical physics, and the foundations of mathematics (particularly proof theory). Hilbert adopted and defended Georg Cantor's set theory and transfinite numbers. In 1900, he presented a collection of problems that set the course for much of the mathematical research of the 20th century. Hilbert and his students contributed significantly to establishing rigor and developed important tools used in modern mathematical physics. Hilbert is known as one of the founders of proof theory and mathematical logic. Life Early life ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Bing]   [Yahoo]   [DuckDuckGo]   [Baidu] picture info Georg Cantor Georg Ferdinand Ludwig Philipp Cantor ( , ;  – January 6, 1918) was a German mathematician. He played a pivotal role in the creation of set theory, which has become a fundamental theory in mathematics. Cantor established the importance of one-to-one correspondence between the members of two sets, defined infinite and well-ordered sets, and proved that the real numbers are more numerous than the natural numbers. In fact, Cantor's method of proof of this theorem implies the existence of an infinity of infinities. He defined the cardinal and ordinal numbers and their arithmetic. Cantor's work is of great philosophical interest, a fact he was well aware of. Originally, Cantor's theory of transfinite numbers was regarded as counter-intuitive – even shocking. This caused it to encounter resistance from mathematical contemporaries such as Leopold Kronecker and Henri Poincaré and later from Hermann Weyl and L. E. J. Brouwer, while Ludwig Wittgenstein raised ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Bing]   [Yahoo]   [DuckDuckGo]   [Baidu] picture info Ordinal Number In set theory, an ordinal number, or ordinal, is a generalization of ordinal numerals (first, second, th, etc.) aimed to extend enumeration to infinite sets. A finite set can be enumerated by successively labeling each element with the least natural number that has not been previously used. To extend this process to various infinite sets, ordinal numbers are defined more generally as linearly ordered labels that include the natural numbers and have the property that every set of ordinals has a least element (this is needed for giving a meaning to "the least unused element"). This more general definition allows us to define an ordinal number \omega that is greater than every natural number, along with ordinal numbers \omega + 1, \omega + 2, etc., which are even greater than \omega. A linear order such that every subset has a least element is called a well-order. The axiom of choice implies that every set can be well-ordered, and given two well-ordered sets, one is isomorphic t ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Bing]   [Yahoo]   [DuckDuckGo]   [Baidu] Beth Two In mathematics, particularly in set theory, the beth numbers are a certain sequence of infinite cardinal numbers (also known as transfinite numbers), conventionally written \beth_0,\ \beth_1,\ \beth_2,\ \beth_3,\ \dots, where \beth is the second Hebrew letter (beth). The beth numbers are related to the aleph numbers (\aleph_0,\ \aleph_1,\ \dots), but unless the generalized continuum hypothesis is true, there are numbers indexed by \aleph that are not indexed by \beth. Definition Beth numbers are defined by transfinite recursion: * \beth_0=\aleph_0, * \beth_=2^, * \beth_=\sup\, where \alpha is an ordinal and \lambda is a limit ordinal. The cardinal \beth_0=\aleph_0 is the cardinality of any countably infinite set such as the set \mathbb of natural numbers, so that \beth_0=, \mathbb, . Let \alpha be an ordinal, and A_\alpha be a set with cardinality \beth_\alpha=, A_\alpha, . Then, *\mathcal(A_\alpha) denotes the power set of A_\alpha (i.e., the set of all subsets of A_\a ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Bing]   [Yahoo]   [DuckDuckGo]   [Baidu] picture info Function (mathematics) In mathematics, a function from a set to a set assigns to each element of exactly one element of .; the words map, mapping, transformation, correspondence, and operator are often used synonymously. The set is called the domain of the function and the set is called the codomain of the function.Codomain ''Encyclopedia of Mathematics'Codomain. ''Encyclopedia of Mathematics''/ref> The earliest known approach to the notion of function can be traced back to works of Persian mathematicians Al-Biruni and Sharaf al-Din al-Tusi. Functions were originally the idealization of how a varying quantity depends on another quantity. For example, the position of a planet is a ''function'' of time. Historically, the concept was elaborated with the infinitesimal calculus at the end of the 17th century, and, until the 19th century, the functions that were considered were differentiable (that is, they had a high degree of regularity). The concept of a function was formalized at the end of th ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Bing]   [Yahoo]   [DuckDuckGo]   [Baidu]