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US GAAP
Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP or U.S. GAAP, pronounced like "gap") is the accounting standard adopted by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) and is the default accounting standard used by companies based in the United States. The Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) publishes and maintains the Accounting Standards Codification (ASC), which is the single source of authoritative nongovernmental U.S. GAAP. The FASB published U.S. GAAP in Extensible Business Reporting Language (XBRL) beginning in 2008. Sources of GAAP The FASB Accounting Standards Codification is the source of authoritative GAAP recognized by the FASB to be applied by nongovernmental entities. Rules and interpretive releases of the SEC under authority of federal securities laws are also sources of authoritative GAAP for SEC registrants. In addition to the SEC's rules and interpretive releases, the SEC staff issues Staff Accounting Bulletins that represent practices followed by ...
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Accounting Standard
Publicly traded companies typically are subject to rigorous standards. Small and midsized businesses often follow more simplified standards, plus any specific disclosures required by their specific lenders and shareholders. Some firms operate on the cash method of accounting which can often be simple and straight forward. Larger firms most often operate on an accrual basis. Accrual basis is one of the fundamental accounting assumptions and if it is followed by the company while preparing the Financial statements then no further disclosure is required. Accounting standards prescribe in considerable detail what accruals must be made, how the financial statements are to be presented, and what additional disclosures are required. Some important elements that accounting standards cover include: identifying the exact entity which is reporting, discussing any "going concern" questions, specifying monetary units, and reporting time frames. Limitations The notable limitations of accountin ...
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Revenue
In accounting, revenue is the total amount of income generated by the sale of goods and services related to the primary operations of the business. Commercial revenue may also be referred to as sales or as turnover. Some companies receive revenue from interest, royalties, or other fees. This definition is based on IAS 18. "Revenue" may refer to income in general, or it may refer to the amount, in a monetary unit, earned during a period of time, as in "Last year, Company X had revenue of $42 million". Profits or net income generally imply total revenue minus total expenses in a given period. In accounting, in the balance statement, revenue is a subsection of the Equity section and revenue increases equity, it is often referred to as the "top line" due to its position on the income statement at the very top. This is to be contrasted with the "bottom line" which denotes net income (gross revenues minus total expenses). In general usage, revenue is the total amount of inc ...
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International Accounting Standards Board
The International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) is the independent accounting standard-setting body of the IFRS Foundation. The IASB was founded on April 1, 2001, as the successor to the International Accounting Standards Committee (IASC). It is responsible for developing International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and for promoting their use and application."About the IASB"
IFRS Foundation, 2018.


Background and semantics

The (IASC) had been established in 1973 and had issued a number of standards known as International Accounting Standards (IAS). As the ...
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Convergence Of Accounting Standards
The convergence of accounting standards refers to the goal of establishing a single set of accounting standards that will be used internationally.FASB, 2012International Convergence of Accounting Standards—Overview Retrieved on April 27, 2012. Convergence in some form has been taking place for several decades, and efforts today include projects that aim to reduce the differences between accounting standards. Convergence is driven by several factors, including the belief that having a single set of accounting requirements would increase the comparability of different entities' accounting numbers, which will contribute to the flow of international investment and benefit a variety of stakeholders. Criticisms of convergence include its cost and pace, and the idea that the link between convergence and comparability may not be strong. Overview The international convergence of accounting standards refers to the goal of establishing a single set of high-quality accounting standards to b ...
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Federal Accounting Standards Advisory Board
The Federal Accounting Standards Advisory Board (FASAB) is a United States federal advisory committee whose mission is to improve federal financial reporting through issuing federal financial accounting standards and providing guidance after considering the needs of external and internal users of federal financial information. FASAB is designated as the body that sets U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) for the United States Government and its component entities, referred to as federal financial reporting entities. The AICPA Council designated FASAB as the body that establishes GAAP for federal entities in 1999. The Chief Financial Officers Act of 1990 required annual, audited financial statements for the United States Government and its federal reporting entities. In order to apply the statutes of the CFO Act of 1990, the Secretary of the Treasury, the Director of the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), and the Comptroller General established FASAB to d ...
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Governmental Accounting Standards Board
The Governmental Accounting Standards Board (GASB) is the source of generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) used by state and local governments in the United States. As with most of the entities involved in creating GAAP in the United States, it is a private, non-governmental organization. The GASB is subject to oversight by the Financial Accounting Foundation (FAF), which selects the members of the GASB and the Financial Accounting Standards Board, and it funds both organizations. Its mission is to establish and improve standards of state and local governmental accounting and financial reporting that will result in useful information for users of financial reports and guide and educate the public, including issuers, auditors, and users of those financial reports. The GASB has issued ''Statements'', ''Interpretations'', ''Technical Bulletins'', ''Concept Statements'' and ''Implementation Guides'' defining GAAP for state and local governments since 1984. GAAP for the Fe ...
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Financial Accounting Foundation
The Financial Accounting Foundation (FAF) is located in Norwalk, Connecticut, United States. It was organized in 1972 as a non-stock, Delaware Corporation. It is an independent organization in the private sector, operating with the goal of ensuring objectivity and integrity in financial reporting standards. The foundation is responsible for: * Establishing and improving financial accounting and reporting standards; * Educating constituents about those standards; * The oversight, administration, and finances of its standard-setting Boards, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) and the Governmental Accounting Standards Board (GASB), and their Advisory Councils; * Selecting the members of the standard-setting Boards and Advisory Councils; and * Protecting the independence and integrity of the standard-setting process. FAF operates four branches in its organization: * FASB * GASB * The Financial Accounting Standards Advisory Council (FASAC). This branch is composed of F ...
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Wheat Committee
The Wheat Committee, an American study group on the establishment of accounting principles, was brought into being in 1971 in order to examine the operation of the Accounting Principles Board and to avoid governmental rule-making. It was headed by Francis Wheat. The Study Group submitted its recommendations to the AICPA Council in the spring of 1972, which led to the replacement of the Accounting Principles Board with the FASB, the Financial Accounting Standards Board The Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) is a private standard-setting body whose primary purpose is to establish and improve Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) within the United States in the public's interest. The Securi ... in 1973. References {{DEFAULTSORT:Wheat Committee, The Accounting in the United States 1971 establishments in the United States ...
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List Of Accounting Principles Board Opinions
Accounting Principles Board Opinions, Interpretations and Recommendations were published by the Accounting Principles Board from 1962 to 1973. The board was created by American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA) in 1959 and was replaced by Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) in 1973. Its mission was to develop an overall conceptual framework of US generally accepted accounting principles (US GAAP). APB was the main organization setting the US GAAP and its opinions are still an important part of it. All of the Opinions have been superseded in 2009 by FASB's Accounting Standards Codification. Accounting Interpretations The American Institute of Certified Public Accountants issued Accounting Interpretations between 1968 and November 1973, when the Financial Accounting Standards Board took over the issuing of interpretations in June 1974. The Interpretations were not considered pronouncements from the Accounting Principles Board, but Richard C. Lytle, the ...
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Great Depression
The Great Depression (19291939) was an economic shock that impacted most countries across the world. It was a period of economic depression that became evident after a major fall in stock prices in the United States. The economic contagion began around September and led to the Wall Street stock market crash of October 24 (Black Thursday). It was the longest, deepest, and most widespread depression of the 20th century. Between 1929 and 1932, worldwide gross domestic product (GDP) fell by an estimated 15%. By comparison, worldwide GDP fell by less than 1% from 2008 to 2009 during the Great Recession. Some economies started to recover by the mid-1930s. However, in many countries, the negative effects of the Great Depression lasted until the beginning of World War II. Devastating effects were seen in both rich and poor countries with falling personal income, prices, tax revenues, and profits. International trade fell by more than 50%, unemployment in the U.S. rose to 23% an ...
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United States Securities And Exchange Commission
The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) is an independent agency of the United States federal government, created in the aftermath of the Wall Street Crash of 1929. The primary purpose of the SEC is to enforce the law against market manipulation. In addition to the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, which created it, the SEC enforces the Securities Act of 1933, the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, the Investment Company Act of 1940, the Investment Advisers Act of 1940, the Sarbanes–Oxley Act of 2002, and other statutes. The SEC was created by Section 4 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (now codified as and commonly referred to as the Exchange Act or the 1934 Act). Overview The SEC has a three-part mission: to protect investors; maintain fair, orderly, and efficient markets; and facilitate capital formation. To achieve its mandate, the SEC enforces the statutory requirement that public companies and other regulated companies submit quarterly and annual r ...
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