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 Tychonoff's Theorem In mathematics, Tychonoff's theorem states that the product of any collection of compact topological spaces is compact with respect to the product topology. The theorem is named after Andrey Nikolayevich Tikhonov (whose surname sometimes is transcribed ''Tychonoff''), who proved it first in 1930 for powers of the closed unit interval and in 1935 stated the full theorem along with the remark that its proof was the same as for the special case. The earliest known published proof is contained in a 1935 article of Tychonoff, A., "Uber einen Funktionenraum", Mathematical Annals, 111, pp. 762–766 (1935). (This reference is mentioned in "Topology" by Hocking and Young, Dover Publications, Ind.) Tychonoff's theorem is often considered as perhaps the single most important result in general topology (along with Urysohn's lemma). The theorem is also valid for topological spaces based on fuzzy sets.Joseph Goguen, "The Fuzzy Tychonoff Theorem", Journal of Mathematical Analysis and ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Mathematics Mathematics is an area of knowledge that includes the topics of numbers, formulas and related structures, shapes and the spaces in which they are contained, and quantities and their changes. These topics are represented in modern mathematics with the major subdisciplines of number theory, algebra, geometry, and analysis, respectively. There is no general consensus among mathematicians about a common definition for their academic discipline. Most mathematical activity involves the discovery of properties of abstract objects and the use of pure reason to prove them. These objects consist of either abstractions from nature orin modern mathematicsentities that are stipulated to have certain properties, called axioms. A ''proof'' consists of a succession of applications of deductive rules to already established results. These results include previously proved theorems, axioms, andin case of abstraction from naturesome basic properties that are considered true starting points of ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Stone–Čech Compactification In the mathematical discipline of general topology, Stone–Čech compactification (or Čech–Stone compactification) is a technique for constructing a universal map from a topological space ''X'' to a compact Hausdorff space ''βX''. The Stone–Čech compactification ''βX'' of a topological space ''X'' is the largest, most general compact Hausdorff space "generated" by ''X'', in the sense that any continuous map from ''X'' to a compact Hausdorff space factors through ''βX'' (in a unique way). If ''X'' is a Tychonoff space then the map from ''X'' to its image in ''βX'' is a homeomorphism, so ''X'' can be thought of as a (dense) subspace of ''βX''; every other compact Hausdorff space that densely contains ''X'' is a quotient of ''βX''. For general topological spaces ''X'', the map from ''X'' to ''βX'' need not be injective. A form of the axiom of choice is required to prove that every topological space has a Stone–Čech compactification. Even for quite simple spaces ' ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Stone Space In topology and related areas of mathematics, a Stone space, also known as a profinite space or profinite set, is a compact totally disconnected Hausdorff space. Stone spaces are named after Marshall Harvey Stone who introduced and studied them in the 1930s in the course of his investigation of Boolean algebras, which culminated in his representation theorem for Boolean algebras. Equivalent conditions The following conditions on the topological space X are equivalent: * X is a Stone space; * X is homeomorphic to the projective limit (in the category of topological spaces) of an inverse system of finite discrete spaces; * X is compact and totally separated; * X is compact, T0 , and zero-dimensional (in the sense of the small inductive dimension); * X is coherent and Hausdorff. Examples Important examples of Stone spaces include finite discrete spaces, the Cantor set and the space \Z_p of p-adic integers, where p is any prime number. Generalizing these examples, any produ ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] C*-algebra In mathematics, specifically in functional analysis, a C∗-algebra (pronounced "C-star") is a Banach algebra together with an involution satisfying the properties of the adjoint. A particular case is that of a complex algebra ''A'' of continuous linear operators on a complex Hilbert space with two additional properties: * ''A'' is a topologically closed set in the norm topology of operators. * ''A'' is closed under the operation of taking adjoints of operators. Another important class of non-Hilbert C*-algebras includes the algebra C_0(X) of complex-valued continuous functions on ''X'' that vanish at infinity, where ''X'' is a locally compact Hausdorff space. C*-algebras were first considered primarily for their use in quantum mechanics to model algebras of physical observables. This line of research began with Werner Heisenberg's matrix mechanics and in a more mathematically developed form with Pascual Jordan around 1933. Subsequently, John von Neumann attempted to estab ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Gelfand Representation In mathematics, the Gelfand representation in functional analysis (named after I. M. Gelfand) is either of two things: * a way of representing commutative Banach algebras as algebras of continuous functions; * the fact that for commutative C*-algebras, this representation is an isometric isomorphism. In the former case, one may regard the Gelfand representation as a far-reaching generalization of the Fourier transform of an integrable function. In the latter case, the Gelfand–Naimark representation theorem is one avenue in the development of spectral theory for normal operators, and generalizes the notion of diagonalizing a normal matrix. Historical remarks One of Gelfand's original applications (and one which historically motivated much of the study of Banach algebras) was to give a much shorter and more conceptual proof of a celebrated lemma of Norbert Wiener (see the citation below), characterizing the elements of the group algebras ''L''1(R) and \ell^1() whose translates ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Cellular Automaton A cellular automaton (pl. cellular automata, abbrev. CA) is a discrete model of computation studied in automata theory. Cellular automata are also called cellular spaces, tessellation automata, homogeneous structures, cellular structures, tessellation structures, and iterative arrays. Cellular automata have found application in various areas, including physics, theoretical biology and microstructure modeling. A cellular automaton consists of a regular grid of ''cells'', each in one of a finite number of '' states'', such as ''on'' and ''off'' (in contrast to a coupled map lattice). The grid can be in any finite number of dimensions. For each cell, a set of cells called its ''neighborhood'' is defined relative to the specified cell. An initial state (time ''t'' = 0) is selected by assigning a state for each cell. A new ''generation'' is created (advancing ''t'' by 1), according to some fixed ''rule'' (generally, a mathematical function) that determines the new state of ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Curtis–Hedlund–Lyndon Theorem The Curtis–Hedlund–Lyndon theorem is a mathematical characterization of cellular automata in terms of their symbolic dynamics. It is named after Morton L. Curtis, Gustav A. Hedlund, and Roger Lyndon; in his 1969 paper stating the theorem, Hedlund credited Curtis and Lyndon as co-discoverers. It has been called "one of the fundamental results in symbolic dynamics". The theorem states that a function from a shift space to itself represents the transition function of a one-dimensional cellular automaton if and only if it is continuous (with respect to the Cantor topology) and equivariant (with respect to the shift map). More generally, it asserts that the morphisms between any two shift spaces (that is, continuous mappings that commute with the shift) are exactly those mappings which can be defined uniformly by a local rule. The version of the theorem in Hedlund's paper applied only to one-dimensional finite automata, but a generalization to higher dimensional integer lattices ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Critical Graph In graph theory, a critical graph is an undirected graph all of whose subgraphs have smaller chromatic number. In such a graph, every vertex or edge is a critical element, in the sense that its deletion would decrease the number of colors needed in a graph coloring of the given graph. The decrease in the number of colors cannot be by more than one. Variations A ''k-critical graph'' is a critical graph with chromatic number k. A graph G with chromatic number k is ''k-vertex-critical'' if each of its vertices is a critical element. Critical graphs are the ''minimal'' members in terms of chromatic number, which is a very important measure in graph theory. Some properties of a k-critical graph G with n vertices and m edges: * G has only one component. * G is finite (this is the de Bruijn–Erdős theorem). * The minimum degree \delta(G) obeys the inequality \delta(G)\ge k-1. That is, every vertex is adjacent to at least k-1 others. More strongly, G is (k-1)- edge-connected. * ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info De Bruijn–Erdős Theorem (graph Theory) In graph theory, the De Bruijn–Erdős theorem relates graph coloring of an infinite graph to the same problem on its finite subgraphs. It states that, when all finite subgraphs can be colored with c colors, the same is true for the whole graph. The theorem was proved by Nicolaas Govert de Bruijn and Paul Erdős ( 1951), after whom it is named. The De Bruijn–Erdős theorem has several different proofs, all depending in some way on the axiom of choice. Its applications include extending the four-color theorem and Dilworth's theorem from finite graphs and partially ordered sets to infinite ones, and reducing the Hadwiger–Nelson problem on the chromatic number of the plane to a problem about finite graphs. It may be generalized from finite numbers of colors to sets of colors whose cardinality is a strongly compact cardinal. Definitions and statement An undirected graph is a mathematical object consisting of a set of vertices and a set of edges that link pairs of vertices. ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Uniform Convergence In the mathematical field of analysis, uniform convergence is a mode of convergence of functions stronger than pointwise convergence. A sequence of functions (f_n) converges uniformly to a limiting function f on a set E if, given any arbitrarily small positive number \epsilon, a number N can be found such that each of the functions f_N, f_,f_,\ldots differs from f by no more than \epsilon ''at every point'' x ''in'' E. Described in an informal way, if f_n converges to f uniformly, then the rate at which f_n(x) approaches f(x) is "uniform" throughout its domain in the following sense: in order to guarantee that f_n(x) falls within a certain distance \epsilon of f(x), we do not need to know the value of x\in E in question — there can be found a single value of N=N(\epsilon) ''independent of x'', such that choosing n\geq N will ensure that f_n(x) is within \epsilon of f(x) ''for all x\in E''. In contrast, pointwise convergence of f_n to f merely guarantees that for any x\in E giv ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Arzelà–Ascoli Theorem The Arzelà–Ascoli theorem is a fundamental result of mathematical analysis giving necessary and sufficient conditions to decide whether every sequence of a given family of real-valued continuous functions defined on a closed and bounded interval has a uniformly convergent subsequence. The main condition is the equicontinuity of the family of functions. The theorem is the basis of many proofs in mathematics, including that of the Peano existence theorem in the theory of ordinary differential equations, Montel's theorem in complex analysis, and the Peter–Weyl theorem in harmonic analysis and various results concerning compactness of integral operators. The notion of equicontinuity was introduced in the late 19th century by the Italian mathematicians Cesare Arzelà and Giulio Ascoli. A weak form of the theorem was proven by , who established the sufficient condition for compactness, and by , who established the necessary condition and gave the first clear presentation of th ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Normed Vector Space In mathematics, a normed vector space or normed space is a vector space over the real or complex numbers, on which a norm is defined. A norm is the formalization and the generalization to real vector spaces of the intuitive notion of "length" in the real (physical) world. A norm is a real-valued function defined on the vector space that is commonly denoted x\mapsto \, x\, , and has the following properties: #It is nonnegative, meaning that \, x\, \geq 0 for every vector x. #It is positive on nonzero vectors, that is, \, x\, = 0 \text x = 0. # For every vector x, and every scalar \alpha, \, \alpha x\, = , \alpha, \, \, x\, . # The triangle inequality holds; that is, for every vectors x and y, \, x+y\, \leq \, x\, + \, y\, . A norm induces a distance, called its , by the formula d(x,y) = \, y-x\, . which makes any normed vector space into a metric space and a topological vector space. If this metric space is complete then the normed space is a Banach space. Every normed v ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu]