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Truth Table
A truth table is a mathematical table used in logic—specifically in connection with Boolean algebra, boolean functions, and propositional calculus—which sets out the functional values of logical expressions on each of their functional arguments, that is, for each combination of values taken by their logical variables. In particular, truth tables can be used to show whether a propositional expression is true for all legitimate input values, that is, logically valid. A truth table has one column for each input variable (for example, P and Q), and one final column showing all of the possible results of the logical operation that the table represents (for example, P XOR Q). Each row of the truth table contains one possible configuration of the input variables (for instance, P=true Q=false), and the result of the operation for those values. See the examples below for further clarification. Ludwig Wittgenstein is generally credited with inventing and popularizing the truth table ...
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Proposition
In logic and linguistics, a proposition is the meaning of a declarative sentence. In philosophy, " meaning" is understood to be a non-linguistic entity which is shared by all sentences with the same meaning. Equivalently, a proposition is the non-linguistic bearer of truth or falsity which makes any sentence that expresses it either true or false. While the term "proposition" may sometimes be used in everyday language to refer to a linguistic statement which can be either true or false, the technical philosophical term, which differs from the mathematical usage, refers exclusively to the non-linguistic meaning behind the statement. The term is often used very broadly and can also refer to various related concepts, both in the history of philosophy and in contemporary analytic philosophy. It can generally be used to refer to some or all of the following: The primary bearers of truth values (such as "true" and "false"); the objects of belief and other propositional attitudes (i. ...
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Material Conditional
The material conditional (also known as material implication) is an operation commonly used in logic. When the conditional symbol \rightarrow is interpreted as material implication, a formula P \rightarrow Q is true unless P is true and Q is false. Material implication can also be characterized inferentially by modus ponens, modus tollens, conditional proof, and classical reductio ad absurdum. Material implication is used in all the basic systems of classical logic as well as some nonclassical logics. It is assumed as a model of correct conditional reasoning within mathematics and serves as the basis for commands in many programming languages. However, many logics replace material implication with other operators such as the strict conditional and the variably strict conditional. Due to the paradoxes of material implication and related problems, material implication is not generally considered a viable analysis of conditional sentences in natural language. Notati ...
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Projection Function
In set theory, a projection is one of two closely related types of functions or operations, namely: * A set-theoretic operation typified by the ''j''th projection map, written \mathrm_, that takes an element \vec = (x_1,\ \ldots,\ x_j,\ \ldots,\ x_k) of the Cartesian product (X_1 \times \cdots \times X_j \times \cdots \times X_k) to the value \mathrm_(\vec) = x_j. * A function that sends an element ''x'' to its equivalence class under a specified equivalence relation ''E'', or, equivalently, a surjection from a set to another set.. The function from elements to equivalence classes is a surjection, and every surjection corresponds to an equivalence relation under which two elements are equivalent when they have the same image. The result of the mapping is written as 'x''when ''E'' is understood, or written as 'x''sub>''E'' when it is necessary to make ''E'' explicit. See also * Cartesian product * Projection (relational algebra) * Projection (mathematics) In mathematics, a proj ...
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Logical Biconditional
In logic and mathematics, the logical biconditional, sometimes known as the material biconditional, is the logical connective (\leftrightarrow) used to conjoin two statements and to form the statement " if and only if ", where is known as the '' antecedent'', and the ''consequent''. This is often abbreviated as " iff ". Other ways of denoting this operator may be seen occasionally, as a double-headed arrow (↔ or ⇔ may be represented in Unicode in various ways), a prefixed E "E''pq''" (in Łukasiewicz notation or Bocheński notation), an equality sign (=), an equivalence sign (≡), or ''EQV''. It is logically equivalent to both (P \rightarrow Q) \land (Q \rightarrow P) and (P \land Q) \lor (\neg P \land \neg Q) , and the XNOR (exclusive nor) boolean operator, which means "both or neither". Semantically, the only case where a logical biconditional is different from a material conditional is the case where the hypothesis is false but the conclusion is true. In this case ...
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Logical Conjunction
In logic, mathematics and linguistics, And (\wedge) is the truth-functional operator of logical conjunction; the ''and'' of a set of operands is true if and only if ''all'' of its operands are true. The logical connective that represents this operator is typically written as \wedge or . A \land B is true if and only if A is true and B is true, otherwise it is false. An operand of a conjunction is a conjunct. Beyond logic, the term "conjunction" also refers to similar concepts in other fields: * In natural language, the denotation of expressions such as English "and". * In programming languages, the short-circuit and control structure. * In set theory, intersection. * In lattice theory, logical conjunction (greatest lower bound). * In predicate logic, universal quantification. Notation And is usually denoted by an infix operator: in mathematics and logic, it is denoted by \wedge, or ; in electronics, ; and in programming languages, &, &&, or and. In ...
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Logical NAND
In Boolean functions and propositional calculus, the Sheffer stroke denotes a logical operation that is equivalent to the negation of the conjunction operation, expressed in ordinary language as "not both". It is also called nand ("not and") or the alternative denial, since it says in effect that at least one of its operands is false. In digital electronics, it corresponds to the NAND gate. It is named after Henry M. Sheffer and written as ↑ or as , (but not as , , , often used to represent disjunction). In Bocheński notation it can be written as D''pq''. Its dual is the NOR operator (also known as the Peirce arrow or Quine dagger). Like its dual, NAND can be used by itself, without any other logical operator, to constitute a logical formal system (making NAND functionally complete). This property makes the NAND gate crucial to modern digital electronics, including its use in computer processor design. Definition The NAND operation is a logical operation on two logic ...
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Exclusive Disjunction
Exclusive or or exclusive disjunction is a logical operation that is true if and only if its arguments differ (one is true, the other is false). It is symbolized by the prefix operator J and by the infix operators XOR ( or ), EOR, EXOR, , , , , , and . The negation of XOR is the logical biconditional, which yields true if and only if the two inputs are the same. It gains the name "exclusive or" because the meaning of "or" is ambiguous when both operands are true; the exclusive or operator ''excludes'' that case. This is sometimes thought of as "one or the other but not both". This could be written as "A or B, but not, A and B". Since it is associative, it may be considered to be an ''n''-ary operator which is true if and only if an odd number of arguments are true. That is, ''a'' XOR ''b'' XOR ... may be treated as XOR(''a'',''b'',...). Truth table The truth table of A XOR B shows that it outputs true whenever the inputs differ: Equivalences, elimination, and intro ...
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Material Nonimplication
Material nonimplication or abjunction (Latin ''ab'' = "from", ''junctio'' =–"joining") is the negation of material implication. That is to say that for any two propositions P and Q, the material nonimplication from P to Q is true if and only if the negation of the material implication from P to Q is true. This is more naturally stated as that the material nonimplication from P to Q is true only if P is true and Q is false. It may be written using logical notation as P \nrightarrow Q, P \not \supset Q, or "L''pq''" (in Bocheński notation), and is logically equivalent to \neg (P \rightarrow Q), and P \land \neg Q. Definition Truth table Logical Equivalences Material nonimplication may be defined as the negation of material implication. In classical logic, it is also equivalent to the negation of the disjunction of \neg P and Q, and also the conjunction of P and \neg Q Properties falsehood-preserving: The interpretation under which all variables are assig ...
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Negation
In logic, negation, also called the logical complement, is an operation that takes a proposition P to another proposition "not P", written \neg P, \mathord P or \overline. It is interpreted intuitively as being true when P is false, and false when P is true. Negation is thus a unary logical connective. It may be applied as an operation on notions, propositions, truth values, or semantic values more generally. In classical logic, negation is normally identified with the truth function that takes ''truth'' to ''falsity'' (and vice versa). In intuitionistic logic, according to the Brouwer–Heyting–Kolmogorov interpretation, the negation of a proposition P is the proposition whose proofs are the refutations of P. Definition ''Classical negation'' is an operation on one logical value, typically the value of a proposition, that produces a value of ''true'' when its operand is false, and a value of ''false'' when its operand is true. Thus if statement is true, then \neg P ...
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Converse Nonimplication
In logic, converse nonimplication is a logical connective which is the negation of converse implication (equivalently, the negation of the converse of implication). Definition Converse nonimplication is notated P \nleftarrow Q, or P \not \subset Q, and is logically equivalent to \neg (P \leftarrow Q) Truth table The truth table of P \nleftarrow Q . Notation Converse nonimplication is notated p \nleftarrow q, which is the left arrow from converse implication ( \leftarrow), negated with a stroke (). Alternatives include * p \not\subset q, which combines converse implication's \subset, negated with a stroke (). * p \tilde q, which combines converse implication's left arrow (\leftarrow) with negation's tilde (\sim). * M''pq'', in Bocheński notation Properties falsehood-preserving: The interpretation under which all variables are assigned a truth value of 'false' produces a truth value of 'false' as a result of converse nonimplication Natural language Grammatical Examp ...
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