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Total Cost
In economics, total cost (TC) is the minimum dollar cost of producing some quantity of output. This is the total economic cost of production and is made up of variable cost, which varies according to the quantity of a good produced and includes inputs such as labor and raw materials, plus fixed cost, which is independent of the quantity of a good produced and includes inputs that cannot be varied in the short term such as buildings and machinery, including possibly sunk costs. Total cost in economics includes the total opportunity cost (benefits received from the next-best alternative) of each factor of production as part of its fixed or variable costs. The additional total cost of one additional unit of production is called marginal cost. The marginal cost can also be calculated by finding the derivative of total cost or variable cost. Either of these derivatives work because the total cost includes variable cost and fixed cost, but fixed cost is a constant with a deriva ...
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Marginal Cost
In economics, the marginal cost is the change in the total cost that arises when the quantity produced is incremented, the cost of producing additional quantity. In some contexts, it refers to an increment of one unit of output, and in others it refers to the rate of change of total cost as output is increased by an infinitesimal amount. As Figure 1 shows, the marginal cost is measured in dollars per unit, whereas total cost is in dollars, and the marginal cost is the slope of the total cost, the rate at which it increases with output. Marginal cost is different from average cost, which is the total cost divided by the number of units produced. At each level of production and time period being considered, marginal cost includes all costs that vary with the level of production, whereas costs that do not vary with production are fixed. For example, the marginal cost of producing an automobile will include the costs of labor and parts needed for the additional automobile but not th ...
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Total Cost Of Acquisition
Total cost of acquisition (TCA) is a managerial accounting concept that includes all the costs associated with buying goods, services, or assets. Generally, it is the net price plus other costs needed to purchase the item and get it to the point of use. These other costs can include: the item's purchasing costs ( closing, research, accounting, commissions, legal fees), transportation, preparation and installation costs. Paquette, Larry, (2004). The Sourcing Solution. AMAMOC, New York, 109-115 Typically they do not include training, system integration costs that might be considered operational costs. See also *Total cost *Total cost of ownership *Procurement Procurement is the method of discovering and agreeing to terms and purchasing goods, services, or other works from an external source, often with the use of a tendering or competitive bidding process. When a government agency buys goods or s ... *{{section link, Purchase, Acquisition process References External lin ...
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Cost Curve
In economics, a cost curve is a graph of the costs of production as a function of total quantity produced. In a free market economy, productively efficient firms optimize their production process by minimizing cost consistent with each possible level of production, and the result is a cost curve. Profit-maximizing firms use cost curves to decide output quantities. There are various types of cost curves, all related to each other, including total and average cost curves; marginal ("for each additional unit") cost curves, which are equal to the differential of the total cost curves; and variable cost curves. Some are applicable to the short run, others to the long run. Notation There are standard acronyms for each cost concept, expressed in terms of the following descriptors: *SR = short-run (when the amount of physical capital cannot be adjusted) *LR = long-run (when all input amounts can be adjusted) *A = average (per unit of output) *M = marginal (for an additional unit of o ...
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Semi-variable Cost
In accounting and economics, a semi-variable cost (also referred to as semi-fixed cost) is an expense which contains both a fixed-cost component and a variable-cost component. It is often used to project financial performance at different scales of production. It is related to the scale of production within the business where there is a fixed cost which remains constant across all scales of production while the variable cost increases proportionally to production levels. Using a factory as an example, fixed costs can include the leasing of the factory building and insurance, while the variable costs include overtime pay and the purchase price of the raw materials. Calculating semi-variable costs Linear costs In the simplest case, where cost is linear in output, the equation for the total semi-variable cost is as follows: :Y = a + bX where Y is the total cost, a is the fixed cost, b is the variable cost per unit, and X is the number of units (i.e. the output produced). Ex ...
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Marketing Accountability Standards Board (MASB)
The Marketing Accountability Standards Board (MASB), authorized by the Marketing Accountability Foundation,MASB''Marketing Accountability Foundation (MAF)''. ited 8 December 2010/ref> is an independent, private sector, self-governing group of academics and practitioners that establishes marketing measurement and accountability standards intended for continuous improvement in financial performance, and for the guidance and education of users of performance and financial information. History Establishment of the Board (i.e., MASB) was recommended by The Boardroom Project (2004–2007) in response to growing demand for marketing accountability.Gregory, James"In Search of Brand Accountability."''Branding Strategy Insider.'' 9 July 2010. ited 19 January 2011/ref> The Boardroom Project found that marketing has been relegated to the “default” category (control costs) because it lacks metrics that reliably tie activities and costs to financial return. While issues surrounding metri ...
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Cost Curve
In economics, a cost curve is a graph of the costs of production as a function of total quantity produced. In a free market economy, productively efficient firms optimize their production process by minimizing cost consistent with each possible level of production, and the result is a cost curve. Profit-maximizing firms use cost curves to decide output quantities. There are various types of cost curves, all related to each other, including total and average cost curves; marginal ("for each additional unit") cost curves, which are equal to the differential of the total cost curves; and variable cost curves. Some are applicable to the short run, others to the long run. Notation There are standard acronyms for each cost concept, expressed in terms of the following descriptors: *SR = short-run (when the amount of physical capital cannot be adjusted) *LR = long-run (when all input amounts can be adjusted) *A = average (per unit of output) *M = marginal (for an additional unit of o ...
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Capital (economics)
In economics, capital goods or capital are "those durable produced goods that are in turn used as productive inputs for further production" of goods and services. At the macroeconomic level, "the nation's capital stock includes buildings, equipment, software, and inventories during a given year." A typical example is the machinery used in factories. Capital can be increased by the use of the factors of production, which however excludes certain durable goods like homes and personal automobiles that are not used in the production of saleable goods and services. Adam Smith defined capital as "that part of man's stock which he expects to afford him revenue". In economic models, capital is an input in the production function. The total physical capital at any given moment in time is referred to as the capital stock (not to be confused with the capital stock of a business entity). Capital goods, real capital, or capital assets are already-produced, durable goods or any non ...
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Factors Of Production
In economics, factors of production, resources, or inputs are what is used in the production process to produce output—that is, goods and services. The utilized amounts of the various inputs determine the quantity of output according to the relationship called the production function. There are four ''basic'' resources or factors of production: land, labour, capital and entrepreneur (or enterprise). The factors are also frequently labeled "producer goods or services" to distinguish them from the goods or services purchased by consumers, which are frequently labeled "consumer goods". There are two types of factors: ''primary'' and ''secondary''. The previously mentioned primary factors are land, labour and capital. Materials and energy are considered secondary factors in classical economics because they are obtained from land, labour, and capital. The primary factors facilitate production but neither becomes part of the product (as with raw materials) nor becomes significantly t ...
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Opportunity Cost
In microeconomic theory, the opportunity cost of a particular activity is the value or benefit given up by engaging in that activity, relative to engaging in an alternative activity. More effective it means if you chose one activity (for example, an investment) you are giving up the opportunity to do a different option. The optimal activity is the one that, net of its opportunity cost, provides the greater return compared to any other activities, net of their opportunity costs. For example, if you buy a car and use it exclusively to transport yourself, you cannot rent it out, whereas if you rent it out you cannot use it to transport yourself. If your cost of transporting yourself without the car is more than what you get for renting out the car, the optimal choice is to use the car yourself. In basic equation form, opportunity cost can be defined as: "Opportunity Cost = (returns on best Forgone Option) - (returns on Chosen Option)." The opportunity cost of mowing one’s own l ...
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Sunk Cost
In economics and business decision-making, a sunk cost (also known as retrospective cost) is a cost that has already been incurred and cannot be recovered. Sunk costs are contrasted with '' prospective costs'', which are future costs that may be avoided if action is taken. In other words, a sunk cost is a sum paid in the past that is no longer relevant to decisions about the future. Even though economists argue that sunk costs are no longer relevant to future rational decision-making, people in everyday life often take previous expenditures in situations, such as repairing a car or house, into their future decisions regarding those properties. Bygones principle According to classical economics and standard microeconomic theory, only prospective (future) costs are relevant to a rational decision. At any moment in time, the best thing to do depends only on ''current'' alternatives. The only things that matter are the ''future'' consequences. Past mistakes are irrelevant. Any cost ...
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