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Stem Cell
In multicellular organisms Multicellular organisms are organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμός, ''organismos'') is any individual contiguous system that embodies the Life#Biology, properties of life. It is a synonym for "Out ..., stem cells are undifferentiated or partially differentiated cells Cell most often refers to: * Cell (biology), the functional basic unit of life Cell may also refer to: Closed spaces * Monastic cell, a small room, hut, or cave in which a monk or religious recluse lives * Prison cell, a room used to hold peopl ... that can differentiate into various types of cells There are many different types of cell Cell most often refers to: * Cell (biology), the functional basic unit of life Cell may also refer to: Closed spaces * Monastic cell, a small room, hut, or cave in which a monk or religious recluse live ... and proliferate indefinitely to produce more of the same stem cell. They are the earl ...
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Mesenchymal Stem Cell
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) also known as mesenchymal stromal cells or medicinal signaling cells are multipotent Cell potency is a cell's ability to differentiate into other cell types. The more cell types a cell can differentiate into, the greater its potency. Potency is also described as the gene activation potential within a cell, which like a continuum, ... stromal cell Stromal cells, or mesenchymal stromal cells, are differentiating cells Cell most often refers to: * Cell (biology), the functional basic unit of life Cell may also refer to: Closed spaces * Monastic cell, a small room, hut, or cave in which a ...s that can differentiate into a variety of cell types, including osteoblast Osteoblasts (from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is app ...s (bone cells), chondrocyte ...
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Adult Stem Cells
Adult stem cells are undifferentiated cells Cell most often refers to: * Cell (biology), the functional basic unit of life Cell may also refer to: Closed spaces * Monastic cell, a small room, hut, or cave in which a monk or religious recluse lives * Prison cell, a room used to hold peopl ..., found throughout the body after development, that multiply by cell division Cell division is the process by which a parent cell (biology), cell divides into two or more daughter cells. Cell division usually occurs as part of a larger cell cycle. In eukaryotes, there are two distinct types of cell division; a vegetative ... to replenish dying cells and regenerate damaged tissues. Also known as somatic Somatic may refer to: * Somatic (biology), referring to the cells of the body in contrast to the germ line cells ** Somatic cell, a non-gametic cell in a multicellular organism * Somatic nervous system, the portion of the vertebrate nervous syste ... stem cells In multicellular ...
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Transmission Electron Microscopy
#REDIRECT Transmission electron microscopy #REDIRECT Transmission electron microscopy Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is a technique in which a beam of s is transmitted through a specimen to form an image. The specimen is most often an ultrathin section less than 100 nm thic ...
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Pluripotent
Cell potency is a cell's ability to differentiate into other cell types. The more cell types a cell can differentiate into, the greater its potency. Potency is also described as the gene activation potential within a cell, which like a continuum, begins with totipotency Cell potency is a cell's ability to differentiate into other cell types. The more cell types a cell can differentiate into, the greater its potency. Potency is also described as the gene activation potential within a cell, which like a continuum, ... to designate a cell with the most differentiation potential, pluripotency Cell potency is a cell's ability to differentiate into other cell types. The more cell types a cell can differentiate into, the greater its potency. Potency is also described as the gene activation potential within a cell, which like a continuum, ..., multipotency Cell potency is a cell's ability to differentiate into other cell types. The more cell types a cell can differentiate into, th ...
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Multipotent
Cell potency is a cell's ability to differentiate into other cell types. The more cell types a cell can differentiate into, the greater its potency. Potency is also described as the gene activation potential within a cell, which like a continuum, begins with totipotency Cell potency is a Cell (biology), cell's ability to Cellular differentiation, differentiate into other cell types. The more cell types a cell can differentiate into, the greater its potency. Potency is also described as the gene activation potentia ... to designate a cell with the most differentiation potential, pluripotency Cell potency is a cell's ability to differentiate into other cell types. The more cell types a cell can differentiate into, the greater its potency. Potency is also described as the gene activation potential within a cell, which like a continuum, ..., multipotency Cell potency is a cell's ability to differentiate into other cell types. The more cell types a cell can differentiate into, ...
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Gonads
A gonad, sex gland, or reproductive gland is a mixed gland that produces the gametes A gamete ( /ˈɡæmiːt/; from Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided into the foll ... and sex hormones Sex hormones, also known as sex steroids, gonadocorticoids and gonadal steroids, are steroid hormone A steroid hormone is a steroid that acts as a hormone. Steroid hormones can be grouped into two classes: corticosteroids (typically made in the ... of an organism. Female Female (symbol: ♀) is the sex Sex is either of two divisions, typically male Male (♂) is the sex of an organism that produces the gamete known as sperm. A male gamete can fuse with a larger female gamete, or ovum, in the process of ... reproductive cells are egg cells Diagram of a chicken egg in its 9th day. Membranes: allantois, chori ...
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Bone Marrow
Bone marrow is a semi-solid tissue Tissue may refer to: Biology * Tissue (biology), an ensemble of similar cells that together carry out a specific function * ''Triphosa haesitata'', a species of geometer moth found in North America * ''Triphosa dubitata'', a species of geometer mot ... found within the spongy or cancellous portions of bone A bone is a rigid tissue Tissue may refer to: Biology * Tissue (biology), an ensemble of similar cells that together carry out a specific function * ''Triphosa haesitata'', a species of geometer moth found in North America * ''Triphosa dubit ...s. In birds and mammals, bone marrow is the primary site of new blood cell A blood cell, also called a hematopoietic cell, hemocyte, or hematocyte, is a cell Cell most often refers to: * Cell (biology), the functional basic unit of life Cell may also refer to: Closed spaces * Monastic cell, a small room, hut, or ... production or haematopoiesis Haematopoiesis (, from , 'blood' and ...
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Stem-cell Niche
Stem-cell niche refers to a microenvironment, within the specific anatomic location where stem cells are found, which interacts with stem cells to regulate cell fate. The word 'niche' can be in reference to the ''in vivo'' or ''in vitro'' stem-cell microenvironment. During embryonic development, various niche factors act on embryonic stem cells to alter gene expression, and induce their proliferation or differentiation for the development of the fetus. Within the human body, stem-cell niches maintain adult stem cells in a quiescent state, but after tissue injury, the surrounding micro-environment actively signals to stem cells to promote either self-renewal or differentiation to form new tissues. Several factors are important to regulate stem-cell characteristics within the niche: cell–cell interactions between stem cells, as well as interactions between stem cells and neighbouring differentiated cells, interactions between stem cells and adhesion molecules, extracellular matrix co ...
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Embryonic Stem Cells
Embryonic stem cells (ES cells or ESCs) are Cell potency#Pluripotency, pluripotent stem cells derived from the inner cell mass of a blastocyst, an early-stage pre-Implantation (human embryo), implantation embryo. Human embryos reach the blastocyst stage 4–5 days post Human fertilization, fertilization, at which time they consist of 50–150 cells. Isolating the embryoblast, or inner cell mass (ICM) results in destruction of the blastocyst, a process Stem cell controversy, which raises ethical issues, including whether or not embryos at the pre-implantation stage have the same moral considerations as embryos in the post-implantation stage of development. Researchers are currently focusing heavily on the therapeutic potential of embryonic stem cells, with clinical use being the goal for many laboratories. Potential uses include the treatment of diabetes and heart disease. The cells are being studied to be used as clinical therapies, models of genetic disorders, and cellular/DNA r ...
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In Vitro
''In vitro'' (meaning in glass, or ''in the glass'') studies Study or studies may refer to: General * Education **Higher education * Clinical trial * Experiment * Observational study * Research * Study skills, abilities and approaches applied to learning Other * Study (art), a drawing or series of drawing ... are performed with microorganism A microorganism, or microbe,, ''mikros'', "small") and ''organism In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes ...s, cells Cell most often refers to: * Cell (biology), the functional basic unit of life Cell may also refer to: Closed spaces * Monastic cell, a small room, hut, or cave in which a monk or religious recluse lives * Prison cell, a room used to hold peopl ..., or biological molecule , showing alpha helices, represented by ribbons. This poten was the first to have its suckture solved b ...
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Cell Culture
Cell culture is the process by which cells Cell most often refers to: * Cell (biology), the functional basic unit of life Cell may also refer to: Closed spaces * Monastic cell, a small room, hut, or cave in which a monk or religious recluse lives * Prison cell, a room used to hold peopl ... are grown under controlled conditions, generally outside their natural environment. After the cells of interest have been isolated from living tissue, they can subsequently be maintained under carefully controlled conditions. These conditions vary for each cell type, but generally consist of a suitable vessel with a substrate or medium Medium may refer to: Science and technology Aviation *Medium bomber, a class of war plane *Tecma Medium, a French hang glider design Communication * Media (communication), tools used to store and deliver information or data * Medium of i ... that supplies the essential nutrients (amino acid Amino acids are organic compound In , organic ...
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Gastrulation
Gastrulation is the stage in the early embryonic development of most animals, during which the blastula (a single-layered hollow sphere of Cell (biology), cells) is reorganized into a multilayered structure known as the gastrula. Before gastrulation, the embryo is a continuous Epithelium, epithelial sheet of cells; by the end of gastrulation, the embryo has begun Cellular differentiation, differentiation to establish distinct cell lineages, set up the basic axes of the body (e.g. Anatomical terms of location#Dorsal and ventral, dorsal-ventral, Anatomical terms of location#Anterior and posterior, anterior-posterior), and internalized one or more cell types including the prospective Gastrointestinal tract, gut. In Triploblasty, triploblastic organisms, the gastrula is trilaminar ("three-layered"). These three ''germ layers'' are known as the ectoderm (outer layer), mesoderm (middle layer), and endoderm (inner layer).Mundlos 2009p. 422/ref>McGeady, 2004: p. 34 In Diploblasty, diplobl ...
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