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Saul Kripke
Saul Aaron Kripke (; born November 13, 1940) is an American philosopher American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States ** Americans, citizens and nationals of the United States of America ** American ancestry, people who self-id ... and logician Logic is an interdisciplinary field which studies truth Truth is the property of being in accord with fact or reality.Merriam-Webster's Online Dictionarytruth 2005 In everyday language, truth is typically ascribed to things that aim to re ... in the analytic tradition. He is a Distinguished Professor of Philosophy at the Graduate Center of the City University of New York The Graduate School and University Center of the City University of New York (The Graduate Center) is a public research institution and post-graduate university in New York City. It is the principal doctoral-granting institution of the City Univ ... and emeritus prof ...
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Western Philosophy
Western philosophy encompasses the philosophical Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about existence Existence is the ability of an entity to interact with physical or mental reality Reality is the sum or aggregate of all that is real o ... thought and work of the Western world The Western world, also known as the West, refers to various s, s and , depending on the context, most often consisting of the majority of , , and .
Western world
. Historically, the term refers to the philosophical thinking of

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Theory Of Reference
In analytic philosophy Analytic philosophy is a branch and tradition of philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about existence Existence is the ability of an entity to interact with physical reality ..., philosophy of language investigates the nature of language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the ..., the relations between language, language users, and the world. Investigations may include inquiry into the nature of meaning Meaning most commonly refers to: * Meaning (linguistics), meaning which is communicated through the use of language * Meaning (philosophy), definition, elements, and types of meaning discussed in philosophy * Meaning (non-linguistic), a general ter ..., intentionality ''In ...
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A Priori And A Posteriori
''A priori'' and ''a posteriori'' ('from the earlier' and 'from the later', respectively) are Latin phrases used in philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about Metaphysics, existence, reason, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, Philosophy of mind, mind, and Philosophy of language, language. Such questio ... to distinguish types of knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is something that is truth, true. The usual test for a statement of fact is verifiability—that is whether it can be demonstrated to correspond to e ..., justification, or argument In logic Logic is an interdisciplinary field which studies truth and reasoning Reason is the capacity of consciously making sense of things, applying logic Logic (from Ancient Greek, Greek: grc, wikt:λογική, λογική, la ... by their reliance on empirical evidence o ...
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Kripke's Theory Of Truth
A semantic theory of truth is a theory of truth in the philosophy of language which holds that truth is a property of sentences. Origin The semantic conception of truth, which is related in different ways to both the correspondence theory of truth, correspondence and deflationary theory of truth, deflationary conceptions, is due to work by Poland, Polish logician Alfred Tarski. Tarski, in "On the Concept of Truth in Formal Languages" (1935), attempted to formulate a new theory of truth in order to resolve the liar paradox. In the course of this he made several metamathematical discoveries, most notably Tarski's undefinability theorem using the same formal technique Kurt Gödel used in his Gödel's incompleteness theorems, incompleteness theorems. Roughly, this states that a truth-predicate satisfying Convention T for the sentences of a given language cannot be defined ''within'' that language. Tarski's theory of truth To formulate linguistic theories without semantic paradoxes suc ...
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Semantic Theory Of Truth
A semantic theory of truth is a theory of truth in the philosophy of language In analytic philosophy Analytic philosophy is a branch and tradition of philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, Metaphysics, existence, Epistemology, knowledge, ... which holds that truth is a property of sentences. Origin The semantic Semantics (from grc, σημαντικός ''sēmantikós'', "significant") is the study of reference Reference is a relationship between objects in which one object designates, or acts as a means by which to connect to or link to, another ... conception of truth, which is related in different ways to both the correspondence and deflationary In economics, deflation is a decrease in the general Price index, price level of goods and services. Deflation occurs when the inflation rate falls below 0% (a negative inflation rate). Inflation reduces the value of currency over time ...
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Analytic–synthetic Distinction
The analytic–synthetic distinction is a semantic Semantics (from grc, σημαντικός ''sēmantikós'', "significant") is the study of reference Reference is a relationship between objects in which one object designates, or acts as a means by which to connect to or link to, another o ... distinction, used primarily in philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about Metaphysics, existence, reason, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, Philosophy of mind, mind, and Philosophy of language, language. Such questio ... to distinguish between propositions (in particular, statements that are affirmative subject–predicate Predicate or predication may refer to: Computer science *Syntactic predicate (in parser technology) guidelines the parser process Linguistics *Predicate (grammar), a grammatical component of a sentence Philosophy and logic * Predication (philo ... judgments) that are of two types: anal ...
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A Posteriori Necessity
''A posteriori'' necessity is a thesis in metaphysics and the philosophy of language, that some statements of which we must acquire knowledge a posteriori are also necessarily true. It challenges previously widespread belief that only A priori knowledge, ''a priori'' knowledge can be necessary. It draws on a number of philosophical concepts such as necessity, the causal theory of reference, Rigid designator, rigidity, and the a priori a posteriori distinction. It was first introduced by philosopher Saul Kripke in his 1970 series of lectures at Princeton University. The transcript of these lectures was then compiled and assembled into his seminal book, ''Naming and Necessity''. Main argument for a posteriori necessity Here is an overview of the argument: :(P1) 'Hesperus' is a proper name that refers to the evening star. 'Phosphorus' is also a proper name and it refers to the morning star. But the evening star and the morning star are the same planetary body (Venus). So both na ...
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Flaccid Designator
In the philosophy of language and modal logic, a term is said to be a non-rigid designator (or flaccid designator) or connotative term if it does not extensionally designate (denote, refer to) the same object in all possible worlds. This is in contrast to a rigid designator, which does designate the same object in all possible worlds in which that object exists, and does not designate anything else in those worlds in which that object does ''not'' exist. The term was coined by Saul Kripke in his 1970 lecture series at Princeton University, later published as the book ''Naming and Necessity''. Examples As an example, consider the phrase "The 43rd President of the United States, President of the United States of America": while the 43rd President of the United States is ''actually'' George W. Bush, things might have been different. Bush might have lost the election, meaning that the 43rd President might have been Al Gore or Ralph Nader instead. (''How remote'' these possible worlds are ...
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Rigid Designator
In modal logic Modal logic is a collection of formal system A formal system is an used for inferring theorems from axioms according to a set of rules. These rules, which are used for carrying out the inference of theorems from axioms, are the logical calculus ... and the philosophy of language In analytic philosophy Analytic philosophy is a branch and tradition of philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, Metaphysics, existence, Epistemology, knowledge, ..., a term is said to be a rigid designator or absolute substantial term when it designates (picks out, denotes, refers to) the same thing in ''all possible worlds A possible world is a complete and consistent way the world is or could have been. They are widely used as a formal device in logic Logic is an interdisciplinary field which studies truth and reasoning. Informal logic seeks to characterize ...'' in which that thing exists. ...
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Kripke Structure
: ''This article describes Kripke structures as used in model checking. For a more general description, see Kripke semantics''. A Kripke structure is a variation of the transition system, originally proposed by Saul Kripke, used in model checking to represent the behavior of a system. It consists of a Graph (discrete mathematics), graph whose nodes represent the reachable states of the system and whose edges represent state transitions, together with a labelling function which maps each node to a set of properties that hold in the corresponding state. Temporal logics are traditionally interpreted in terms of Kripke structures. Formal definition Let be a set of ''atomic Propositional calculus, propositions'', i.e. boolean expressions over variables, constants and predicate symbols. Clarke et al. define a Kripke structure over as a n-tuple, 4-tuple consisting of * a finite set of states . * a set of initial states . * a transition relation such that is left-total, i.e., such tha ...
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Admissible Ordinal
In set theory, an ordinal number ''α'' is an admissible ordinal if constructible universe, L''α'' is an admissible set (that is, a Inner model, transitive model of Kripke–Platek set theory); in other words, ''α'' is admissible when ''α'' is a limit ordinal and L''α'' ⊧ Σ0-collection.. See in particulap. 265. The first two admissible ordinals are ω and \omega_1^ (the least recursive ordinal, non-recursive ordinal, also called the Church–Kleene ordinal). Any regular cardinal, regular uncountable cardinal is an admissible ordinal. By a theorem of Gerald Sacks, Sacks, the countable set, countable admissible ordinals are exactly those constructed in a manner similar to the Church–Kleene ordinal, but for Turing machines with Oracle machine, oracles. One sometimes writes \omega_\alpha^ for the \alpha-th ordinal that is either admissible or a limit of admissibles; an ordinal that is both is called ''recursively inaccessible''. There exists a theory of large ordinals i ...
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Frege–Russell View
A mediated reference theory (also indirect reference theory)Leszek Berezowski, ''Articles and Proper Names'', University of Wrocław, 2001, p. 67. is any semantic theory that posits that words refer to something in the external world, but insists that there is more to the meaning of a name than simply the object to which it refers. It thus stands opposed to the theory of direct reference. Gottlob Frege is a well-known advocate of mediated reference theories. Similar theories were widely held in the middle of the twentieth century by philosophers such as Peter Strawson and John Searle. Mediated reference theories are contrasted with Direct reference theory, theories of direct reference. Saul Kripke, a proponent of direct reference theory, in his ''Naming and Necessity'' dubbed mediated reference theory the Frege–Russell view and criticized it. Subsequent scholarship refuted the claim that Bertrand Russell's views on reference theory were the same as Frege's, since Russell was also ...
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