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Routing
Routing is the process of selecting a path for traffic in a network or between or across multiple networks. Broadly, routing is performed in many types of networks, including circuit-switched networks, such as the public switched telephone network (PSTN), and computer networks, such as the Internet. In packet switching networks, routing is the higher-level decision making that directs network packets from their source toward their destination through intermediate network nodes by specific packet forwarding mechanisms. Packet forwarding is the transit of network packets from one network interface to another. Intermediate nodes are typically network hardware devices such as routers, gateways, firewalls, or switches. General-purpose computers also forward packets and perform routing, although they have no specially optimized hardware for the task. The routing process usually directs forwarding on the basis of routing tables. Routing tables maintain a record of the routes ...
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Open Shortest Path First
Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) is a routing protocol for Internet Protocol (IP) networks. It uses a link state routing (LSR) algorithm and falls into the group of interior gateway protocols (IGPs), operating within a single autonomous system (AS). OSPF gathers link state information from available routers and constructs a topology map of the network. The topology is presented as a routing table to the Internet Layer for routing packets by their destination IP address. OSPF supports Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4) and Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) networks and supports the Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) addressing model. OSPF is widely used in large enterprise networks. IS-IS, another LSR-based protocol, is more common in large service provider networks. Originally designed in the 1980s, OSPF is defined for IPv4 in protocol version 2 by RFC 2328 (1998)., Updated by RFC 5709, RFC 6549, RFC 6845, RFC 6860, RFC 7474, RFC 8042. The updates for IPv6 are specified ...
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Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol
Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) is an advanced distance-vector routing protocol that is used on a computer network for automating routing decisions and configuration. The protocol was designed by Cisco Systems as a proprietary protocol, available only on Cisco routers. In 2013 Cisco decided to allow other vendors freely implement limited version of EIGRP with some of its associated features such as High Availability (HA), while withholding other EIGRP features such as EIGRP stub, needed for DMVPN and large-scale campus deployment, exclusively for themselves. Information needed for implementation was published with informational status as in 2016, which did not make it into an Internet Standards Track specification and allowed Cisco to retain control of the EIGRP protocol. EIGRP is used on a router to share routes with other routers within the same autonomous system. Unlike other well known routing protocols, such as RIP, EIGRP only sends incremental update ...
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Routing Information Protocol
The Routing Information Protocol (RIP) is one of the oldest distance-vector routing protocols which employs the hop count as a routing metric. RIP prevents routing loops by implementing a limit on the number of hops allowed in a path from source to destination. The largest number of hops allowed for RIP is 15, which limits the size of networks that RIP can support. RIP implements the split horizon, route poisoning, and holddown mechanisms to prevent incorrect routing information from being propagated. In RIPv1 routers broadcast updates with their routing table every 30 seconds. In the early deployments, routing tables were small enough that the traffic was not significant. As networks grew in size, however, it became evident there could be a massive traffic burst every 30 seconds, even if the routers had been initialized at random times. In most networking environments, RIP is not the preferred choice of routing protocol, as its time to converge and scalability are poor comp ...
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Static Routing
Static routing is a form of routing that occurs when a router uses a manually-configured routing entry, rather than information from dynamic routing traffic. In many cases, static routes are manually configured by a network administrator by adding in entries into a routing table, though this may not always be the case. Unlike dynamic routing, static routes are fixed and do not change if the network is changed or reconfigured. Static routing and dynamic routing are not mutually exclusive. Both dynamic routing and static routing are usually used on a router to maximise routing efficiency and to provide backups in case dynamic routing information fails to be exchanged. Static routing can also be used in stub networks, or to provide a gateway of last resort. Uses Static routing may have the following uses: * Static routing can be used to define an exit point from a router when no other routes are available or necessary. This is called a default route. * Static routing can be used ...
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Routing Protocol
A routing protocol specifies how routers communicate with each other to distribute information that enables them to select routes between nodes on a computer network. Routers perform the traffic directing functions on the Internet; data packets are forwarded through the networks of the internet from router to router until they reach their destination computer. Routing algorithms determine the specific choice of route. Each router has a prior knowledge only of networks attached to it directly. A routing protocol shares this information first among immediate neighbors, and then throughout the network. This way, routers gain knowledge of the topology of the network. The ability of routing protocols to dynamically adjust to changing conditions such as disabled connections and components and route data around obstructions is what gives the Internet its fault tolerance and high availability. The specific characteristics of routing protocols include the manner in which they avoi ...
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Dynamic Routing
Dynamic routing, also called adaptive routing, is a process where a router can forward data via a different route for a given destination based on the current conditions of the communication circuits within a system. The term is most commonly associated with data networking to describe the capability of a network to 'route around' damage, such as loss of a node or a connection between nodes, so long as other path choices are available. Dynamic routing allows as many routes as possible to remain valid in response to the change. Systems that do not implement dynamic routing are described as using static routing, where routes through a network are described by fixed paths. A change, such as the loss of a node, or loss of a connection between nodes, is not compensated for. This means that anything that wishes to take an affected path will either have to wait for the failure to be repaired before restarting its journey, or will have to fail to reach its destination and give up the journ ...
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Routing Table
In computer networking, a routing table, or routing information base (RIB), is a data table stored in a router or a network host that lists the routes to particular network destinations, and in some cases, metrics (distances) associated with those routes. The routing table contains information about the topology of the network immediately around it. The construction of routing tables is the primary goal of routing protocols. Static routes are entries that are fixed, rather than resulting from routing protocols and network topology discovery procedures. Overview A routing table is analogous to a distribution map in package delivery. Whenever a node needs to send data to another node on a network, it must first know ''where'' to send it. If the node cannot directly connect to the destination node, it has to send it via other nodes along a route to the destination node. Each node needs to keep track of which way to deliver various packages of data, and for this it uses a routing ...
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Routing In The PSTN
Routing in the PSTN is the process of forwarding telephone calls between the constituent telephone networks that comprise the public switched telephone network (PSTN). Telephone calls are routed across a network of potentially many switching systems, often owned by different telephone carriers. Switching systems are connected with trunks. Each switch may have many neighbors. Neighboring switches owned by different operators are connected at interconnect points. The PSTN is a network that uses destination routing to direct calls from origin to the recipient. It is not a full mesh network with the nodes of every operator directly connected to those of every other, which would be impractical and inefficient. Therefore, calls may be routed through intermediate operator networks before they reach their final destination. Efficient least-cost routing is an important procedure in PSTN routing. Call routing Each time a call is placed for routing, the destination number (a ...
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Router (computing)
A router is a networking device that forwards data packets between computer networks. Routers perform the traffic directing functions between networks and on the global Internet. Data sent through a network, such as a web page or email, is in the form of data packets. A packet is typically forwarded from one router to another router through the networks that constitute an internetwork (e.g. the Internet) until it reaches its destination node. A router is connected to two or more data lines from different IP networks. When a data packet comes in on one of the lines, the router reads the network address information in the packet header to determine the ultimate destination. Then, using information in its routing table or routing policy, it directs the packet to the next network on its journey. The most familiar type of IP routers are home and small office routers that simply forward IP packets between the home computers and the Internet. More sophisticated routers, ...
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IP Routing
IP routing is the application of routing methodologies to IP networks. This involves not only protocols and technologies but includes the policies of the worldwide organization and configuration of Internet infrastructure. In each IP network node, IP routing involves the determination of a suitable path for a network packet from a source to its destination in an IP network. The process uses static configuration rules or dynamically obtained from routing protocols to select specific packet forwarding methods to direct traffic to the next available intermediate network node one ''hop'' closer to the desired final destination, a total path potentially spanning multiple computer networks. Networks are separated from each other by specialized hosts, called gateways or routers with specialized software support optimized for routing. IP forwarding algorithms in most routing software determine a route through a shortest path algorithm. In routers, packets arriving at an interface are ex ...
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Computer Network
A computer network is a set of computers sharing resources located on or provided by network nodes. The computers use common communication protocols over digital interconnections to communicate with each other. These interconnections are made up of telecommunication network technologies, based on physically wired, optical, and wireless radio-frequency methods that may be arranged in a variety of network topologies. The nodes of a computer network can include personal computers, servers, networking hardware, or other specialised or general-purpose hosts. They are identified by network addresses, and may have hostnames. Hostnames serve as memorable labels for the nodes, rarely changed after initial assignment. Network addresses serve for locating and identifying the nodes by communication protocols such as the Internet Protocol. Computer networks may be classified by many criteria, including the transmission medium used to carry signals, bandwidth, communications pro ...
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Internet
The Internet (or internet) is the global system of interconnected computer networks that uses the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to communicate between networks and devices. It is a '' network of networks'' that consists of private, public, academic, business, and government networks of local to global scope, linked by a broad array of electronic, wireless, and optical networking technologies. The Internet carries a vast range of information resources and services, such as the inter-linked hypertext documents and applications of the World Wide Web (WWW), electronic mail, telephony, and file sharing. The origins of the Internet date back to the development of packet switching and research commissioned by the United States Department of Defense in the 1960s to enable time-sharing of computers. The primary precursor network, the ARPANET, initially served as a backbone for interconnection of regional academic and military networks in the 1970s to enable resourc ...
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